Thematic Section - Knowledge Management and Learning Organization: Academic Contributions

Knowledge sharing in the automotive sector: a comparative study of chinese and brazilian firms

Jorge Muniz Jr.; Jacky Hong; Stefano Oliveira; Daniel Wintersberger; Silvio Popadiuk

Downloads: 0
Views: 104


Abstract: Paper aims: This research aims to evaluate factors that influence knowledge sharing in automotive production context in Brazil and China.

Originality: Despite the growing recognition of the factors that enable knowledge sharing in organizations, our understanding about the unique challenges encountered by the blue-collar workers in a production context is rather limited. Also, the paper raises issues and challenges involved for production organizations to engage in cross-national knowledge sharing, which remain relatively under-explored.

Research method: Drawing on the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) approach, we conduct a comparative survey among the production managers in five automotive plants in China and Brazil. The AHP approach is based on Objective: Promote knowledge sharing among production workers; Criteria of knowledge conversion as Socialization, Externalization, Internalization; and Alternatives as Structure, Communication, Training, Incentive, Standard Operating Procedure, Problem Solving Methodology. The methodology focused on the 3 Brazilian and 2 Chinese automotive plants in our fieldwork.

Main findings: While many authors argue that socialization (dialogue) is the key form of worker knowledge sharing, our findings indicate that workers and managers perceive internalisation as more important in the automotive context. The significant differences between Chinese and Brazilian workers on the relative importance they attributed to knowledge sharing processes and corresponding enabling factors reinforce our understanding about the challenges of knowledge sharing across cultures and lends support to a more particularistic debate of knowledge management. While automotive workers in Brazil preferred to receive more training and better incentive schemes as essential knowledge sharing support mechanisms, Chinese workers valued more standardization through structure and standard operation procedures. The study reaffirms the role of knowledge sharing in continuous improvement and incremental innovation in shop floor operations.

Implications for theory and practice: In lieu of the gaps in the extant literature, this research aims to further identify and evaluate factors that influence cross-national knowledge sharing in automotive production contexts. The research addressed the gaps to promote supportive ways to provide employees interaction, best practices and lessons learning sharing.


Knowledge sharing, Brazil, China, Automotive


Ahlstrom, D., Chan, E., & Bruton, G. (2004). Facing constraints to growth? Overseas chinese entrepreneurs and traditional business practice in Asia. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 21(3), 263-285.

Allameh, S. M., & Abbas, S. K. (2010). The relationship between knowledge management practices and innovation level in organizations: case study of sub- companies of selected corporations in the city of Esfahan. Journal of Business Case Studies, 6(1), 89-98.

Ardichvili, A., Maurer, M., Li, W., Wentling, T., & Stuedemann, R. (2006). Cultural influences on knowledge sharing through online communities of practice. Journal of Knowledge Management, 10(1), 94-107.

Arthur, J. B., & Huntley, C. L. (2005). Ramping up the organizational learning curve: assessing the impact of deliberate learning on organizational performance under gain sharing. Academy of Management Journal, 48(6), 1159-1170.

Asrar-ul-haq, M., & Anwar, S. (2016). A systematic review of knowledge management and knowledge sharing: trends, issues, and challenges. Cogent Business & Management, 14(1), 1-17.

Associacao Nacional dos Fabricantes de Veiculos Automotores. (2019). Associados. Retrieved in 2019, April 1, from

Azan, W., & Sutter, I. (2010). Knowledge transfer in post-merger integration management: a case study of a multinational healthcare company in greece. Knowledge Management Research and Practice, 8(4), 307-332.

Aziz, N., & Sparrow, J. (2011). Patterns of gaining and sharing of knowledge about customers: a study of an Express Parcel Delivery Company. Knowledge Management Research and Practice, 9(1), 29-47.

Babcock, P. (2004). Shedding light on knowledge management. HR Magazine, 49(5), 46-50.

Barachini, F. (2009). Cultural and social issues for knowledge sharing. Journal of Knowledge Management, 13(1), 98-110.

Bartol, K. M., & Srivastava, A. (2002). Encouraging knowledge sharing: the role of organizational reward systems. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 9(1), 64-76.

Biazzo, S., & Panizzolo, R. (2000). The assessment of work organization in lean production: the relevance of the worker’s perspective. Integrated Manufacturing Systems, 11(1), 6-15.

Bisalyaputra, K. (2004, October). Knowledge transfer as sustainable competitive advantage. In 2004 IEEE International Engineering Management Conference: Vol. 2 (IEEE Cat. No. 04CH37574) (pp. 536-540). USA: IEEE.

Boisot, M., & Child, J. (1988). The iron law of fiefs: bureaucratic failure and the problem of governance in the Chinese economic reforms. Administrative Science Quarterly, 33(4), 507-527.

Boisot, M., & Child, J. (1999). Organization as adaptive systems in complex environments: the case of China. Organization Science, 10(3), 237-252.

Bresnen, M., Edelman, L., Newell, S., Scarbrough, H., & Swan, J. (2003). Social practices and the management of knowledge in project environments. International Journal of Project Management, 21(3), 157-166.

Buckley, P., Clegg, J., & Tan, H. (2006). Cultural awareness in knowledge transfer to China: the role of guanxi and mianzi. Journal of World Business, 41(3), 275-288.

Cabrera, E. F., & Cabrera, A. (2005). Fostering knowledge sharing through people management practices. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 16(5), 720-735.

Chen, C. J., & Huang, J. W. (2007). How organizational climate and structure affect knowledge management-the social interaction perspective. International Journal of Information Management, 27(2), 104-118.

Chen, J., Sun, P., & McQueen, R. (2010). The impact of national cultures on structured knowledge transfer. Journal of Knowledge Management, 14(2), 228-242.

Chen, Y., & Tjosvold, D. (2005). Cross-cultural leadership: goal interdependence and leader-member relations in foreign ventures in China. Journal of International Management, 11(3), 417-439.

Chennamaneni, A. (2007). Determinants of knowledge sharing behaviors: developing and testing an integrated theoretical model (Doctor thesis). University of Texas, Arlington.

Chow, C. W., Harrison, G., McKinnon, J. L., & Wu, A. (1999). Cultural influences on informal information sharing in Chinese and Anglo-American organizations: an exploratory study. Accounting, Organizations and Society, 24(7), 561-582.

Cleveland, S., & Ellis, T. J. (2015). Rethinking knowledge sharing barriers: a content analysis of 103 studies. International Journal of Knowledge Management, 11(1), 28-51.

Colen, K., & Petelin, R. (2004). Challenges in collaborative writing in the contemporary corporation. Corporate Communications, 9(2), 136-145.

Collins, C. J., & Clark, K. D. (2003). Strategic human resources practices, top management team social networks, and firms performance: the role of resource practices in creating organizational competitive advantage. Academy of Management Journal, 46(6), 740-751.

Collins, C. J., & Smith, K. G. (2006). Knowledge exchange and combination: the role of human resource practices in the performance of high-technology firms. Academy of Management Journal, 49(3), 544-560.

Coradi, A., Heinzen, M., & Boutellier, R. (2015). Designing workspaces for cross-functional knowledge sharing in R&D: the “co-location pilot” of Novartis. Journal of Knowledge Management, 19(2), 236-256.

Crossan, M. M., Lane, H. W., & White, R. E. (1999). An organizational learning framework: from intuition to institution. Academy of Management Review, 24(3), 522-537.

Cummings, J. N. (2004). Work groups, structural diversity, and knowledge sharing in a global organization. Management Science, 50(3), 352-364.

Dalkir, K., Wiseman, E., Shulha, M., & McIntyre, S. (2007). An intellectual capital evaluation approach in a government organization. Management Decision, 45(9), 1497-1509.

Delbridge, R., Lowe, J., & Oliver, N. (2010). Shop floor responsibilities under lean teamwork. Human Relations, 53(11), 1459-1479.

Devinatz, V. (2007). Manufacturing resistance: rationalizing the irrationality of managerial control on the shop Ffoor in a US medical electronics factory. Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal, 19(1), 1-15.

Ding, G., Liu, H., Huang, Q., & Gu, J. (2016). Moderating effects of guanxi and face on the relationship between psychological motivation and knowledge-sharing in China. Journal of Knowledge Management.

Ding, X. L. (2000). Systemic irregularity and spontaneous property transformation in the Chinese financial system. The China Quarterly, 163, 655-676.

Elmaraghy, H. A. (2005). Flexible and reconfigurable manufacturing systems paradigms. International Journal of Manufacturing Systems, 17(4), 261-276.

Erden, Z., von Krogh, G., & Nonaka, I. (2008). The quality of group tacit knowledge. The Journal of Strategic Information Systems, 17(1), 4-18.

Evangelou, C., & Karacapilidis, N. (2005). On the Interaction between human and knowledge management systems: a framework of knowledge sharing catalysts. Knowledge Management Research and Practice, 3(4), 253-261.

Eze, U. C., Goh, G. G. G., Goh, C. Y., & Tan, T. L. (2013). Perspectives of SMEs on knowledge sharing. Journal of Information and Knowledge Management Systems, 43(2), 210-236.

Farh, J., & Cheng, B. (2000). A cultural analysis of paternalistic leadership in Chinese organization. In J. Li, Tsui, A. & Weldon, E. (Eds.), Management and organizations in the chinese context. London: MacMillan Press.

Fernie, S., Green, S. D., Weller, S. J., & Newcombe, R. (2003). Knowledge sharing: context, confusion and controversy. International Journal of Project Management, 21(3), 177-187.

Fteimi, N., & Lehner, F. (2016). Main research topics in knowledge management: a content analysis of ECKM publications. Electronic Journal of Knowledge Management, 14(1), 5-17.

Fuller, A., Hodkinson, H., Hodkinson, P., & Unwin, L. (2005). Learning as peripheral participation in communities of practice: a reassessment of key concepts in workplace learning. British Educational Research Journal, 31(1), 49-68.

Glisby, M., & Holden, N. (2003). Contextual constraints in knowledge management theory: the cultural embeddedness of Nonaka’s knowledge-creating company. Knowledge and Process Management, 10(1), 29-36.

Gonzalez, R. V. D., & Martins, M. F. (2014). Mapping the organizational factors that support knowledge management in the Brazilian automotive industry. Journal of Knowledge Management, 18(1), 152-176.

Gourlay, S. (2006). Conceptualizing knowledge creation: a critique of Nonaka’s theory. Journal of Management Studies, 43(7), 1415-1436.

Graneheim, U. H., & Lundman, B. (2004). Qualitative content analysis in nursing research: concepts, procedures and measures to achieve trustworthiness. Nurse Education Today, 24(2), 105-112.

Grotenhuis, F., & Weggeman, M. P. (2002). Knowledge management in international mergers. Knowledge and Process Management, 9(2), 83-89.

Hansen, T. (2002). The geography of the knowledge economy, innovation, interaction and industrial development (Doctor thesis). University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen.

Haynes, A. (1999). Effects of world class manufacturing on shop floor workers. Journal of European Industrial Training, 23(6), 300-309.

Hazlett, S.-A., McAdam, R., & Gallagher, S. (2005). Theory building in knowledge management: in search of paradigms. Journal of Management Inquiry, 14(1), 31-42.

Hendriks, P. (2001). Many rivers to cross: from ICT to knowledge management systems. Journal of Information Technology, 16(2), 57-72.

Hinds, P. J., Patterson, M., & Pfeffer, J. (2001). The effect of expertise on knowledge transfer and subsequent novice performance. Applied Psychology, 86(6), 1232-1243.

Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture’s consequences: comparing values, behaviour, institutions, and organizations across nations (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Holsapple, C. W., & Joshi, K. D. (2000). An investigation of factors that influence the management of knowledge in organizations. The Journal of Strategic Information Systems, 9(2/3), 235-261.

Hong, D., Suh, E., & Koo, C. (2011). Developing strategies for overcoming barriers to knowledge sharing based on conversational knowledge management: a case study of a financial company. Expert Systems with Applications, 38(12), 38.

Hong, J., & Engestrom, Y. (2004). Changing principles of communication between Chinese managers and workers. Management Communication Quarterly, 17(4), 552-585.

Hong, J., Snell, R., & Easterby-Smith, M. (2006). Cross-cultural influences of organizational learning in MNCs: The case of Japanese companies in China. Journal of International Management, 12(4), 408-429.

Hong, J., Snell, R., & Rowley, C. (2017). Asia pacific as a research context for organizational learning: background and research directions. Asia Pacific Business Review, 23(4), 467-474.

Hsiao, Y. C., Chen, C. J., & Chang, S. C. (2011). Knowledge management capacity and organizational performance: the social interaction view. International Journal of Manpower, 32(5), 645-660.

Huang, Q., Davison, R. M., & Gu, J. (2008). Impact of personal and cultural factors on knowledge sharing in China. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 25(3), 451-471.

Ingvaldsen, J. A. (2015). Organizational learning: bringing the forces of production back. Organization Studies, 36(4), 423-444.

Ipe, M. (2003). Knowledge sharing in organizations: a conceptual framework. Human Resource Development Review, 2(4), 337-359.

Jolly, D. (2002). Sharing knowledge and decision power in Sino-foreign joint ventures. Asia Pacific Business Review, 9(2), 81-100.

Kathiravelu, S. R., Mansor, N., & Kenny, K. (2013). Factors influencing knowledge sharing behaviour among employees of public services in Malaysia. International Journal of Academic Research in Economics and Management Sciences, 2(3), 107-119.

Klafke, R. V., Lievore, C., Picinin, C. T., de Francisco, A. C., & Pilatti, L. A. (2016). Primary knowledge management practices applied in Brazil, Russia, India and China (BRIC) industries from 2001-2010. Journal of Knowledge Management, 20(4), 812-828.

Kulkarni, U. (2007). Knowledge management capability. Journal of Knowledge Management, 11(6), 94-109.

Kuo, F., & Young, M. (2008). Predicting knowledge sharing practices through intention: a test of competing models. Computers in Human Behavior, 24(6), 2697-2722.

Lang, N. S. (1998). Intercultural management in China. Wiesbaden: DUV.

Leung, T. K. P., & Yee-kwong Chan, R. (2003). Face, favour and positioning: a chinese power game. European Journal of Marketing, 37(11/12), 1575-1598.

Li, W., Downey, S., & Wentling, T. (2008). Online knowledge sharing in a multinational corporation: Chinese versus American practices. Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 44(1), 1-13.

Lin, C. (2007). To share or not to share: modelling knowledge sharing using exchange ideology as a moderator. Personnel Review, 36(3), 457-475.

Lin, H. F., Lee, H. S., & Wang Da, W. (2009). Evaluation of factors influencing knowledge sharing based on a fuzzy AHP approach. Journal of Information Science, 35(1), 25-44.

Lin, T. M., Chang, H. C., & Lin, C. W. (2010). Enhancing performance through merger and acquisition or strategic alliances. African Journal of Business Management, 5(14), 5929-5937.

Liu, M., & Rao, P. (2015). A comparative perspective of knowledge management via social media: India and China. The Learning Organization, 22(2), 93-114.

Ma, Z., Huang, Y., Wu, J., Dong, W., & Qi, L. (2014). What matters for knowledge sharing in collectivistic cultures? Empirical evidence from China. Journal of Knowledge Management, 18(5), 1004-1019.

Magnier-Watanabe, R., Benton, C., & Senoo, D. (2011). A study of knowledge management enablers across countries. Knowledge Management Research & Practice, 9(1), 17-28.

Mahmoud, M. (2008). Knowledge Management enablers and outcomes in the small-and medium sized enterprises. Industrial Management & Data Systems, 109(6), 840-858.

Martinsons, M. G., & Westwood, R. I. (1997). Management information systems in the Chinese business culture: an explanatory theory. Information & Management, 32(5), 215-228.

Mayer, R. C., & Gavin, M. B. (2005). Trust in management and performance: who minds the shop while the employees watch the boss?. Academy of Management Journal48(5), 874-888.

McAdam, R., Moffett, S., & Peng, J. (2012). Knowledge sharing in Chinese service organizations: a multi case cultural perspective. Journal of Knowledge Management, 16(1), 129-147.

McInerney, D. M., & McInerney, V. (2006). Educational psychology: constructing learning (4th ed.). Frenchs Forrest: Pearson.

Mesmer-Magnus, J. R., & DeChurch, L. A. (2009). Information sharing and team performance: a meta-analysis. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 94(2), 535-546.

Miller, P. G., & Strang, J. (2010). Addiction research methods. England: Wiley-Blackwell.

Mooradian, T., Renzl, B., & Matzler, K. (2006). Who trusts? Personality, trust and knowledge sharing. Management Learning, 37(4), 523-540.

Muniz Junior, J., Batista Junior, E. D., & Loureiro, G. (2010a). Knowledge-based integrated Production Management Model applied to automotive companies. International Journal of Knowledge Management Studies, 4(3), 301-318.

Muniz Junior, J., Batista Junior, E. D., & Loureiro, G. (2010b). Knowledge-based integrated production management model. Journal of Knowledge Management, 14(6), 858-871.

Muniz Junior, J., Hong, J., Costa, C. C., Pamplona, V. A. S., Pavlov, Y., Loureiro, G., & Estudillo, M. N. V. (2014). Worker knowledge sharing assessment by analytic hierarchy structure: a theoretical approach. In Proceedings of the Conference for Organisational Learning, Knowledge and Capabilities (OLKC). Oslo, Norway: Norweigan Business School.

Mura, M., Lettieri, E., Radaelli, G., & Spiller, N. (2013). Promoting professionals’ innovative behaviour through knowledge sharing: the moderating role of social capital. Journal of Knowledge Management, 17(4), 527-544.

Nakano, D. N., Muniz Junior, J., & Batista Junior, E. D. (2013). Engaging environments: tacit knowledge sharing on the shop floor. Journal of Knowledge Management, 17(2), 290-306.

Nakano, D., & Muniz Junior, J. (2018). Writing the literature review for an empirical paper. Production, 28, e20170086.

Nascimento, L. O., Muniz Junior, J., Rocha, H. M., & Rangel, L. A. D. (2017). Flexibility assessment to mitigate complexity: trucks production analysis. International Journal of the Analytic Hierarchy Process, 9(1), 48-63.

Nisbett, R. E., Peng, K., Choi, I., & Norenzayan, A. (2001). Culture and systems of thought: holistic versus analytic cognition. Psychological Review, 108(2), 291-310.

Nonaka, I. (1994). A dynamic theory of organizational knowledge creation. Organization Science, 5(1), 14-37.

Nonaka, I., & Nishigushi, T. (2001). Knowledge emergence: social, technical and evolutionary dimensions of knowledge creation. New York: Oxford University Press.

Nonaka, I., & Takeuchi, H. (1995). The knowledge-creating company: How Japanese companies create the dynamics of innovation. USA: Oxford University Press.

Nonaka, I., Von Krogh, G., & Voelpel, S. (2006). Organizational knowledge creation theory: evolutionary paths and future advances. Organization Studies, 27(8), 1179-1208.

Organisation Internationale des Constructeurs d’Automobiles. (2018). Production statistics. Retrieved in 2018, February 10, from

Paiva, E. L., Roth, A. V., & Fensterseifer, J. E. (2007). Organizational knowledge and manufacturing strategy process: a resource-based view analysis. Journal of Operations Management, 26(1), 115-132.

Park, M., Lee, H. S., & Kwon, S. (2010). Construction knowledge evaluation using expert index. Journal of Civil Engineering and Management, 16(3), 401-411.

Peltokorpi, V. (2007). Intercultural communication patterns and strategies: nordic expatriates in Japan. International Business Review, 161(1), 68-82.

Polanyi, M. (2009). The tacit dimension. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Powell, K. M., Heerwagen, J. H., Kampschroer, K., & Loftness, V. (2004). Collaborative knowledge work environments. Building Research and Information, 3(6), 510-528.

Probst, G., Romhardt, K., & Raub, S. (2000). Managing knowledge: building blocks for success. USA: J. Wiley.

Rajkumar, R. (2001). Industrial knowledge management: a micro-level approach. London: Springer-Verlag.

Ramamurti, R., & Singh, J. (2009). Emerging multinationals in emerging markets. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Rea, L. M., & Parker, R. A. (2005). Design and conducting survey research: a comprehensive guide (3rd ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Redding, G. (1990). The spirit of chinese capitalism (de Gruyter Studies in Organization, Vol. 22). New York: de Gruyter.

Redding, G. (2008). Separating culture from institutions: the use of semantic spaces as a conceptual domain and the case of China. Management and Organization Review, 4(2), 257-289.

Ribiere, V. M., & Zhang, Q. (2010). Expertise and mistakes, to share or not to share? A cross-cultural study of in-group/out-group relationships on knowledge sharing. In Proceedings of the 43rd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (pp. 1-10). Washington: IEEE Computer Society.

Riege, A. (2005). Three-dozen knowledge-sharing barriers managers must consider. Journal of Knowledge Management, 9(3), 18-35.

Ripamonti, S., & Scaratti, G. (2012). Weak knowledge for strengthening competences: A practice-based approach in assessment management. Management Learning, 43(2), 183-197.

Saaty, T. (1980). The analytic hierarchy process. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Serenko, A., & Bontis, N. (2004). Meta-review of knowledge management and intellectual capital literature: citation impact and research productivity ranking. Knowledge and Process Management, 11(3), 185-198.

Siau, K., Erickson, J., & Nah, F. F. (2010). Effects of national culture on types of knowledge sharing. IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication, 53(2), 278-292.

Silva, R. C., Dutra, J. S., Veloso, E. F. R., Fischer, A. L., & Trevisan, L. N. (2015). Generational perceptions and their influences on organizational commitment. Management Research: Journal of the Iberoamerican Academy of Management, 13(1), 5-30.

Sinclair, N. (2007). The KM phoenix. VINE Journal of Information and Knowledge Management Systems, 37(3), 255-261.

Søndergaard, S., Kerr, M., & Clegg, C. (2007). Sharing knowledge: contextualising socio-technical thinking and practice. The Learning Organization, 14(5), 423-435.

Sorensen, S. Y. (2015). Motivating the solicited and unsolicited sharing of tacit knowledge through the process of externalization (Doctor thesis). Graduate School of Computer and Information Sciences, Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale.

Spender, J. C., & Scherer, A. G. (2007). The philosophical foundations of knowledge management: editor´s introduction. Organization, 14(1), 1-30.

Statisca. (2018). Estimated passenger car production in selected countries in 2018, by country (in million units). Retrieved in 2018, January 10, from

Styhre, A., Josephson, P.-E., & Knauseder, I. (2006). Organizational learning in non-writing communities: the case of construction workers. Management Learning, 37(1), 83-100.

Tang, J., & Ward, A. (2003). The changing face of chinese management. Routledge: New York.

Taylor, E. Z., & Murthy, U. S. (2009). Knowledge sharing among accounting academics in an electronic network of practice. Accounting Horizons, 23(2), 151-179.

Tohidinia, Z., & Mosakhani, M. (2010). Knowledge sharing behaviour and its predictors. Industrial Management & Data Systems, 110(4), 611-631.

Tonet, H. C., & Paz, M. G. T. (2006). Um modelo para o compartilhamento de conhecimento no trabalho. Revista de Administração Contemporânea, 10(2), 75-94.

Tong, J., & Mitra, A. (2009). Chinese cultural influences on knowledge management practice. Journal of Knowledge Management, 13(2), 49-62.

Tsai, M., & Lee, K.-W. (2006). A study of knowledge internalization: from the perspective of learning cycle theory. Journal of Knowledge Management, 10(3), 57-71.

Tynjälä, P. (2008). Perspectives into learning at the workplace. Educational Research Review, 3(2), 130-154.

Van den Hooff, B., & De Ridder, J. A. (2004). Knowledge sharing in context: the influence of organizational commitment, communication climate and CMC use on knowledge sharing. Journal of Knowledge Management, 8(6), 117-130.

Wang, S., & Noe, R. A. (2010). Knowledge sharing: a review and directions for future research. Human Resource Management Review, 20(2), 115-131.

Wasonga, T., & Murphy, J. F. (2006). Learning from tacit knowledge: the impact of the internship. International Journal of Educational Management, 20(2), 153-163.

Weir, D., & Hutchings, K. (2005). Cultural embeddedness and contextual constraints: knowledge sharing in Chinese and Arab cultures. Knowledge and Process Management, 12(2), 89-98.

Williamson, P., & Zeng, M. (2009). Chinese multinationals: emerging through new global gateways. In R. Ramamurti and J. Singh (Eds.), Emerging multinationals in emerging markets (pp. 81-109). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Wong, K. Y. (2005). Critical success factors for implementing knowledge management in small and medium enterprises. Industrial Management & Data Systems, 105(3), 261-279.

Wong, K. Y., & Aspinwall, E. (2004). Characterizing knowledge management in the small business environment. Journal of Knowledge Management, 8(3), 44-61.

Worley, M., & Doolen, L. (2006). The role of communication and management support in a lean manufacturing implementation. Management Decision, 44(2), 228-245.

Yuanlin, X., Peng, G., Zengliang, L., & Peng, X. (2011, August). Tacit knowledge sharing result evaluation based on improved AHP. In: Proceedings of the 2011 IEEE International Conference on Automation and Logistics (ICAL) (pp. 149-153). USA: IEEE.

Zhang, X., & Jiang, J. Y. (2015). With whom shall I share my knowledge? A recipient perspective of knowledge sharing. Journal of Knowledge Management, 19(2), 277-295.

5d1b90300e88252d22b687d6 production Articles
Links & Downloads


Share this page
Page Sections