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https://prod.org.br/article/doi/10.1590/S0103-65131993000100001
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Metodologias para o desenvolvimento de sistemas especialistas para planejamento em construção

Metodologias para o desenvolvimento de sistemas especialistas para planejamento em construção

Formoso, Carlos Torres

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Resumo

Nos últimos anos um número relativamente grande de sistemas especialistas têm sido produzidos, tanto pela indústria quanto em centros de pesquisa. Algumas destas aplicações têm sido empregadas para resolver problemas práticos, mas a maior parte delas não foi além do estágio de protótipo. Estes sistemas são normalmente desenvolvidos através de um processo relativamente informal e empírico, o qual envolve a implementação de um protótipo simplificado já nos estágios iniciais de aquisição do conhecimento. Esta abordagem tem sido bastante criticada pelas dificuldades de re-implementaçâo do conhecimento. Mais recentemente, algumas metodologias formais para a produção de sistemas especialistas têm sido propostas. Embora tais metodologias prescrevam diversas recomendações úteis, que podem ser seguidas em inúmeros casos práticos, nenhuma delas provou ainda ser aplicável de forma integral em uma ampla gama de situações. A primeira parte deste artigo consiste em uma rápida revisão das principais metodologias propostas. A segunda parte descreve o procedimento adotado durante o desenvolvimento de um sistema especialista para o planejamento de conjuntos habitacionais, denominado House Planner.

Palavras-chave

Sistemas Especialistas, Engenharia do Conhecimento, Inteligência Artificial

Abstract

Several knowledege based systems have been produced in the last decade, both in the industry and in research institutes. Some of these applications have been used in practical situations, but most of them have not been developed beyond the prototype stage. Such systems are usually desingned through an informal and empiric process which involves the implementation of a simple prototype of the system in the early phases of knowledge acquisition. This approach has beem widely criticized because it can make both the re-implementation and updating of knowledege bases cubersome, and seriously distort the way knowledge is represented. For this reason, a number of more formal methodologies for developing knowledge based systems have been proposed in recent years. Although such methodologies have provided some useful advice, none of them has yet proved to be applicable as whole in a wide range of situations. The first part of this paper consists of a general review of some of the existing formal methodologies. In the second part, the approach used for developing a knowledge based system for planning house building projects, named House Planner, is discussed.

Keywords

Expert Systems, Knowledge Engineering, Artificial Inteligency

References



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