Research Article

Risk of WMSDs in monofunctional and multifunctional workers in a Brazilian footwear company

Leite, Wilza Karla dos Santos; Silva, Luiz Bueno da; Souza, Erivaldo Lopes de; Fernandes, José Guilherme Barbosa; Colaço, Geraldo Alves

Downloads: 1
Views: 482


This study aimed to analyze the risk of musculoskeletal disorders in monofunctional and multifunctional workers in a footwear company. The sample comprised 114 workers in the shoe production sector. The method Occupational Repetitive Actions was used to assess the risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). Proportional odds models were constructed, relating the risk of WMSDs to the type of work and the worker’s level of multifunctionality. For monofunctional workers, exposure to the higher risk was related to cycle time and the technical actions within their activities, whereas for multifunctional workers, it was related to the range of motion, use of gloves and precision needed in activities. For monofunctional workers, greater risks were associated with a short activity cycle, whereas for multifunctional workers, they were associated with complementary and organizational factors. Moreover, workers whose intracellular activities were less than 30% of the total appeared to be less exposed to the risk of WMSDs.


Footwear industry, Monofunctional, Multifunctional, WMSDs.


Chiavegato Filho, L. G., & Pereira Júnior, A. (2004). LER/DORT: multifatorialidade etiológica e modelos explicativos. Interface: Comunicação, Saúde, Educação, 8(14), 149-162.

Colombini, D., Occhipinti, E., Fanti, M. (2008). Método OCRA para a análise e a prevenção do risco por movimentos repetitivos: manual para a avaliação e gestão do risco. São Paulo: LTr.

De Magistris, G., Micaelli, A., Evrard, P., Andriot, C., Savin, J., Gaudez, C., & Marsot, J. (2013). Dynamic control of DHM for ergonomic assessments. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 43(2), 170-180.

Dianat, I., & Salimi, A. (2014). Working conditions of Iranian hand-sewn shoe workers and associations with musculoskeletal symptoms. Ergonomics, 57(4), 602-611. PMid:24588329.

Dobson, A. J., & Barnett, A. G. Nominal and ordinal logistic regression. In: Dobson, A. J. & Barnett, A. G. (2008). An introduction to generalized linear models (CRC Texts in Statistical Science Series). 3rd ed. London: Chapman & Hall.

Franco, G., & Fusetti, L. (2004). Bernardino Ramazzini’s early observations of the link between musculoskeletal disorders and ergonomics factors. Applied Ergonomics, 35(1), 67-70.

Gallagher, S. (2005). Physical limitations and musculoskeletal complaints associated with work in unusual or restricted postures: a literature review. Journal of Safety Research, 36(1), 51-61. PMid:15752483.

Guimarães, L. B. M., Ribeiro, J. L. D., & Renner, J. S. (2012). Cost–benefit analysis of a socio-technical intervention in a Brazilian footwear company. Applied Ergonomics, 43(5), 948-957. PMid:22464605.

Halim, I., Arep, H., Kamat, S. R., Abdullah, R., Omar, A. R., & Ismail, A. R. (2014). Development of a decision support system for analysis and solutions of prolonged standing in the workplace. Safety and Health at Work, 5(2), 97-105. PMid:25180141.

Hansson, G. Å., Balogh, I., Ohlsson, K., Granqvist, L., Nordander, C., Arvidsson, I., Åkesson, I., Unge, J., Rittner, R., Strömberg, U., & Skerfving, S. (2010). Physical workload in various types of work: Part II. Neck, shoulder and upper arm. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 40(3), 267-281.

Howarth, S. J., Beach, T. A., Pearson, A. J., & Callaghan, J. P. (2009). Using sitting as a component of job rotation strategies: are lifting/lowering kinetics and kinematics altered following prolonged sitting. Applied Ergonomics, 40(3), 433-439. PMid:19081557.

Huang, S. H., & Pan, Y. C. (2014). Ergonomic job rotation strategy based on an automated RGB-D anthropometric measuring system. Journal of Manufacturing Systems, 33(4), 699-710.

Jaffar, N., Abdul-Tharim, A. H., Mohd-Kamar, I. F., & Lop, N. S. (2011). A literature review of ergonomics risk factors in construction. Industry Procedia Engineering, 20, 89-97.

Keir, P. J., Sanei, K., & Holmes, M. W. (2011). Task rotation effects on upper extremity and back muscle activity. Applied Ergonomics, 42(6), 814-819. PMid:21334596.

Koukoulaki, T. (2014). The impact of lean production on musculoskeletal and psychosocial risks: an examination of sociotechnical trends over 20 years. Applied Ergonomics, 45(2), 198-212. PMid:23981516.

Kvam, P. H., & Vidakovic, B. Categorical data. In: Kvam, P. H. & Vidakovic, B. (2007) Nonparametric statistics with applications to Science and Engineering (Wiley Series in Probability and Statistics). Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons.

Leider, P. C., Boschman, J. S., Frings-Dresen, M. H., & van der Molen, H. F. (2015). Effects of job rotation on musculoskeletal complaints and related work exposures: a systematic literature review. Ergonomics, 58(1), 18-32. PMid:25267494.

Luz, F. R., Loro, M. M., Zeitoune, R. C. G., Kolankiewicz, A. C. B., & Rosanelli, C. S. P. (2013). Riscos ocupacionais de uma indústria calçadista sob a ótica dos trabalhadores. Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem, 66(1), 67-73. PMid:23681381.

Mahdevari, S., Shahriar, K., & Esfahanipour, A. (2014). Human health and safety risks management in underground coal mines using fuzzy TOPSIS. The Science of the Total Environment, 488-489, 85-99. PMid:24815558.

Michalos, G., Makris, S., & Mourtzis, D. (2011). A web based tool for dynamic job rotation scheduling using multiple criteria. CIRP Annals-Manufacturing Technology, 60(1), 453-456.

Niu, S. (2010). Ergonomics and occupational safety and health: an ILO perspective. Applied Ergonomics, 41(6), 744-753. PMid:20347066.

Oakman, J., Macdonald, W., & Wells, Y. (2014). Developing a comprehensive approach to risk management of musculoskeletal disorders in non-nursing health care sector employees. Applied Ergonomics, 45(6), 1634-1640. PMid:24998863.

Pontonnier, C., De Zee, M., Samani, A., Dumont, G., & Madeleine, P. (2014). Strengths and limitations of a musculoskeletal model for an analysis of simulated meat cutting tasks. Applied Ergonomics, 45(3), 592-600. PMid:23972453.

Roman-Liu, D. (2013). External load and the reaction of the musculoskeletal system–A conceptual model of the interaction. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 43(4), 356-362.

Roquelaure, Y., Mariel, J., Fanello, S., Boissière, J. C., Chiron, H., Dano, C., Bureau, D., & Penneau-Fontbonne, D. (2002). Active epidemiological surveillance of musculoskeletal disorders in a shoe factory. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 59(7), 452-458. PMid:12107293.

Sato, T. O., & Coury, H. J. C. G. (2009). Evaluation of musculoskeletal health outcomes in the context of job rotation and multifunctional jobs. Applied Ergonomics, 40(4), 707-712. PMid:18675951.

Seçkiner, S. U., & Kurt, M. (2007). A simulated annealing approach to the solution of job rotation scheduling problems. Applied Mathematics and Computation, 188(1), 31-45.

Widanarko, B., Legg, S., Devereux, J., & Stevenson, M. (2014). The combined effect of physical, psychosocial/organisational and/or environmental risk factors on the presence of work-related musculoskeletal symptoms and its consequences. Applied Ergonomics, 45(6), 1610-1621. PMid:24934982.

Yoon, S. Y., Ko, J., & Jung, M. C. (2016). A model for developing job rotation schedules that eliminate sequential high workloads and minimize between-worker variability in cumulative daily workloads: application to automotive assembly lines. Applied Ergonomics, 55, 8-15. PMid:26995031.

Yu, W., Yu, I. T., Li, Z., Wang, X., Sun, T., Lin, H., Wan, S., Qiu, H., & Xie, S. (2012). Work-related injuries and musculoskeletal disorders among factory workers in a major city of China. Accident; Analysis and Prevention, 48, 457-463. PMid:22664712.

5b86d7ab0e8825f40fe4c89d production Articles
Links & Downloads


Share this page
Page Sections