Research Article

Application of a framework for product-service systems characterization

Fernanda Hänsch Beuren; Paulo Augusto Cauchick-Miguel; Eloiza Kohlbeck; Thayla Tavares Sousa-Zomer

Downloads: 0
Views: 134


Abstract: Paper aims: Apply a framework for characterizing a product-service system (PSS) from a life cycle and sustainability perspective.

Originality: Although the literature on the topic has evolved, there is still limited practical guidance on how to characterize a PSS. The paper contributes by applying a framework in PSS types.

Research method: A proposed conceptual framework was applied to characterize a PSS. This framework was assessed by experts, from which responses were statistically analyzed. Then, it was applied in three PSS types (bike sharing, water purifier rental, and car sharing).

Main findings: The initial result is the consolidation of the framework through statistical analysis. Then, its application in the three PSS types was able to spot the stages of the life cycle that each PSS focuses on most. Specifically for the water purifier, the most focused steps were ‘development’ and ‘implementation’, demonstrating efficient strategic planning and a commitment to meeting customer needs.

Implications for theory and practice: This study contributes to calls for more research and guidance into the PSS application. From a practical perspective, it may support product and systems designers by shedding light on the conceptual elements of PSS offerings.


Product-service systems, PSS application, PSS characterization, Sustainability


Abramovici, M., Gebus, P., Göbel, J. C., & Savarino, P. (2018). Semantic quality assurance of heterogeneous unstructured repair reports. Procedia CIRP, 73, 265-270.

Alaei, N., Kurvinen, E., & Mikkola, A. (2019). A methodology for product development in mobile machinery: case example of an excavator. Machines, 7(4), 70.

Alix, T., & Zacharewicz, G. (2012). Product-service systems scenarios simulation based on G-DEVS/HLA: generalized discrete event specification/high-level architecture. Computers in Industry, 63(4), 370-378.

Aurich, J. C., Fuchs, C., & Wagenknecht, C. (2006). Life cycle-oriented design of technical Product-Service Systems. Journal of Cleaner Production, 14(17), 1480-1494.

Baines, T. S., Lightfoot, H. W., Evans, S., Neely, A., Greenough, R., Peppard, J., Roy, R., Shehab, E., Braganza, A., Tiwari, A., Alcock, J. R., Angus, J. P., Bastl, M., Cousens, A., Irving, P., Johnson, M., Kingston, J., Lockett, H., Martinez, V., Michele, P., Tranfield, D., Walton, I. M., & Wilson, H. (2007). State-of-the-art in product-service systems. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part B, Journal of Engineering Manufacture, 221(10), 1543-1552.

Bastl, M., Johnson, M., Lightfoot, H., & Evans, S. (2012). Buyer-supplier relationships in a servitized environment: an examination with Cannon and Perreault’s framework. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 32(6), 650-675.

Besch, K. (2005). Product-service systems for office furniture: barriers and opportunities on the European market. Journal of Cleaner Production, 13(10-11), 1083-1094.

Beuren, F. H., Amaral, C. E., & Cauchick-Miguel, P. A. (2012). Caracterização de um sistema produto-serviço com base no seu ciclo de vida: análise em um purificador de água disponível no Brasil. Exacta, 10(1), 13-26.

Beuren, F. H., Ferreira, M. G. G., & Cauchick-Miguel, P. A. (2013). Product-service systems: a literature review on integrated products and services. Journal of Cleaner Production, 47, 222-231.

Beuren, F. H., Sousa-Zomer, T. T., & Cauchick-Miguel, P. A. (2017). Proposal of a framework for product-service systems characterization. Production, 27, e20170052.

Chen, C.-W. (2018). Guidance on the conceptual design of sustainable product-service systems. Sustainability, 10(7), 2452.

Cronbach, L. J. (1951). Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika, 16(3), 297-334.

De Coster, R. (2011). A collaborative approach to forecasting product-service systems (PSS). International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 52(9-12), 1251-1260.

Fernandes, S. C., Pigosso, D. C. A., McAloone, T. C., & Rozenfeld, H. (2020). Towards product-service system oriented to circular economy: a systematic review of value proposition design approaches. Journal of Cleaner Production, 257, 120507.

França, C. L., Broman, G., Robèrt, K.-H., Basile, G., & Trygg, L. (2017). An approach to business model innovation and design for strategic sustainable development. Journal of Cleaner Production, 140(Pt 1), 155-166.

Gao, J., Yao, Y., Zhu, V. C. Y., Sun, L., & Lin, L. (2011). Service-oriented manufacturing: a new product pattern and manufacturing paradigm. Journal of Intelligent Manufacturing, 22(3), 435-446.

George, D., & Mallery, P. (2003). SPSS for Windows step by step: a simple guide and reference, 11.0 update (4th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Goedkoop, M. J., van Halen, C. J. G., Riele, H. R. M., & Rommens, P. J. M. (1999). Product Service Systems, ecological and economic basics (Report). Netherlands: Dutch Ministries of Environment and Economic Affairs. Retrieved in 2024, January 5, from

Guzzo, D., Trevisan, A. H., Echeveste, M., & Costa, J. M. H. (2019). Circular innovation framework: verifying conceptual to practical decisions in sustainability-oriented product-service system cases. Sustainability, 11(12), 3248.

Halstenberg, F. A., Lindow, K., & Stark, R. (2019). Leveraging circular economy through a methodology for smart service systems engineering. Sustainability, 11(13), 3517.

Held, M., Weidmann, D., Kammerl, D., Hollauer, C., Mörtl, M., Omer, M., & Lindemann, U. (2018). Current challenges for sustainable product development in the German automotive sector: a survey-based status assessment. Journal of Cleaner Production, 195, 869-889.

Henriques, R., Figueiredo, F., & Nunes, J. (2023). Product-services for a resource-efficient and circular economy: an updated review. Sustainability, 15(15), 12077.

Igba, J., Alemzadeh, K., Gibbons, P. M., & Henningsen, K. (2015). A framework for optimizing product performance through feedback and reuse of in-service experience. Robotics and Computer-integrated Manufacturing, 36, 2-12.

Ingemarsdotter, E., Jamsin, E., Kortuem, G., & Balkenende, R. (2019). Circular strategies enabled by the internet of things-a framework and analysis of current practice. Sustainability, 11(20), 5689.

Jabbour, A. B. L. S., Luiz, J. V. R., Luiz, O. R., Jabbour, C. J. C., Ndubisi, N. O., Oliveira, J. H. C., & Horneaux Junior, F. (2019). Circular economy business models and operations management. Journal of Cleaner Production, 235, 1525-1539.

Joore, P., & Brezet, H. (2015). A Multilevel Design Model: the mutual relationship between product-service system development and societal change processes. Journal of Cleaner Production, 97, 92-105.

Kanda, W., Sakao, T., & Hjelm, O. (2016). Components of business concepts for the diffusion of large scaled environmental technology systems. Journal of Cleaner Production, 128, 156-167.

Khan, M. A., West, S., & Wuest, T. (2020). Midlife upgrade of capital equipment: a servitization-enabled, value-adding alternative to traditional equipment replacement strategies. CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology, 29, 232-244.

Kuo, T. C., Chiu, M. C., Hsu, C. W., & Tseng, M. L. (2019). Supporting sustainable product service systems: a product selling and leasing design model. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 146, 384-394.

Martinez, V., Bastl, M., Kingston, J., & Evans, S. (2010). Challenges in transforming manufacturing organisations into product-service providers. Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, 21(4), 449-469.

Maxwell, D., Sheate, W., & van der Vorst, R. (2006). Functional and systems aspects of the sustainable product and service development approach for industry. Journal of Cleaner Production, 14(17), 1466-1479.

Mien, L. H., Feng, L. W., Gay, R., & Leng, K. (2005, December 12-14). An Integrated Manufacturing and Product Services System (IMPSS) concept for sustainable product development. In R. Yamamoto, Y. Furukawa, H. Koshibu, P. Eagan, H. Griese, Y. Umeda & K. Aoyama (Eds.), 2005 4th International Symposium on Environmentally Conscious Design and Inverse Manufacturing (pp. 656-662). New York, USA: IEEE.

Mont, O. (2002). Drivers and barriers for shifting towards more service-oriented businesses: analysis of the PSS field and contributions from Sweden. The Journal of Sustainable Production Design, 2(3-4), 89-103.

Mont, O., & Lindhqvist, T. (2003). The role of public policy in advancement of product service systems. Journal of Cleaner Production, 11(8), 905-914.

Mont, O., & Tukker, A. (2006). Product-Service Systems: reviewing achievements and refining the research agenda. Journal of Cleaner Production, 14(17), 1451-1454.

Morelli, N. (2003). Product-service systems, a perspective shift for designers: a case study - the design of a telecentre. Design Studies, 24(1), 73-99.

Morelli, N. (2006). Developing new product service systems (PSS): methodologies and operational tools. Journal of Cleaner Production, 14(17), 1495-1501.

Mourtzis, D. (2020). Simulation in the design and operation of manufacturing systems: state of the art and new trends. International Journal of Production Research, 58(7), 1927-1949.

Mourtzis, D., Fotia, S., Boli, N., & Pittaro, P. (2018). Product-service system (PSS) complexity metrics within mass customization and Industry 4.0 environment. International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 97(1-4), 91-103.

Neligan, A., Baumgartner, R. J., Geissdoerfer, M., & Scöggl, J. P. (2022). Circular disruption: digitalisation as a driver of circular economy business models. Business Strategy and the Environment, 32(Spe 3) 1175-1188.

Nunes, I. C., Kohlbeck, E., Beuren, F. H., Fagundes, A. B., & Pereira, D. (2021). Life cycle analysis of electronic products for a product-service system. Journal of Cleaner Production, 314, 127926.

Song, W., & Sakao, T. (2017). A customization-oriented framework for design of sustainable product/service system. Journal of Cleaner Production, 140, 1672-1685.

Sousa-Zomer, T. T., & Cauchick-Miguel, P. A. (2019). Exploring business model innovation for sustainability: an investigation of two product-service systems. Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, 30(5-6), 594-612.

Sundin, E. (2009). Life-cycle perspectives of product/service-systems: in design theory. In T. Sakao & M. Lindahl (Eds.), Introduction to product/service-system design (pp. 31-49). London: Springer.

Sundin, E., Rönnbäck, A. Ö., & Sakao, T. (2010). From component to system solution supplier: strategic warranty management as a key to efficient integrated product/service engineering. CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology, 2(3), 183-191.

Tukker, A. (2004). Eight types of product-service system: eight ways to sutainability? Experiences from suspronet. Business Strategy and the Environment, 13(4), 246-260.

UN Environment Programme - UNEP. (2004). Product-Service Systems and Sustainability: opportunities for sustainable solutions. Milan: INDACO Department/Politecnico di Milano. Retrieved in 5 January 2024, from;jsessionid=A9BC7A39FD96721273D2CDC76024B864

Vence, X., & Pereira, Á. (2019). Eco-innovation and Circular Business Models as drivers for a circular economy. Contaduría y Administración, 64(1), 1-19.

Vezzoli, C. (2007). System design for sustainability: theory, methods and tools for a sustainable “satisfaction-system” design. Milan: Maggioli Editore.

Vezzoli, C., & Sciama, D. (2006). Life Cycle Design: from general methods to product type specific guidelines and checklists: a method adopted to develop a set of guidelines/checklist handbook for the eco-efficient design of NECTA vending machines. Journal of Cleaner Production, 14(15-16), 1319-1325.

Vogtländer, J. G., Bijma, A., & Brezet, H. C. (2002). Communicating the eco-efficiency of products and services by means of the eco-costs/value model. Journal of Cleaner Production, 10(1), 57-67.

Wahyudi, R. D., Singgih, M. L., & Suef, M. (2022). Investigation of Product-Service System components as control points for value creation and development process. Sustainability, 14(23), 16216.

Wu, Y., & Gao, J. (2010, January 9-10). A study on the model and characteristics of product-based service supply chain. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Logistics Systems and Intelligent Management (pp. 1127-1131). Harbin: ICLSIM.

Yang, L., Xing, K., & Lee, S. H. (2010, July 15-17). A new conceptual life cycle model for Result-Oriented Product-Service System development. In Proceedings of the 2010 IEEE International Conference on Service Operations and Logistics, and Informatics (pp. 23-28). USA: IEEE.

Submitted date:

Accepted date:

65bba308a953952654097a23 production Articles
Links & Downloads


Share this page
Page Sections