Research Article

Risk management, robustness and resilience: mechanisms for stabilizing and improving agility performance

Aziz Barhmi

Downloads: 1
Views: 281


Paper aims: This study aims to empirically explore the mechanisms by which supply chain capabilities dedicated to risk management, robustness, and resilience contribute to improved agility performance in times of disruptions from unavoidable risks.

Originality: This is the first empirical research examining the direct and indirect effects of supply chain capabilities related to risk management, robustness, and resilience on improving agility performance in times of disruptions.

Research method: The study considers supply chain risk management as a dynamic capability and supply chain robustness and resilience as operational capabilities that have a mediating role in improving the agility performance of partner firms. Data collected through a survey was used for structural equation modeling and other tests to explore the respective effects of these supply chain capabilities in an environment marked by unavoidable risks, vulnerabilities, and disruptions.

Main findings: The development of a supply chain risk management capability supported by the generation and/or reconfiguration of the operational capabilities inherent in supply chain robustness and supply chain resilience results in improved agility performance for global supply chain partner firms in times of disruptions.

Implications for theory and practice: The results contribute to the theoretical development of issues related to the mechanisms by which supply chain capabilities, particularly risk management, robustness, and resilience work together to improve agility performance and achieve competitive advantage in times of disruptions.


Risks, Disruptions, Robustness, Resilience, Agility


Ahmed, W., Najmi, A., & Khan, A. (2020). Analysing supply chain risk management capabilities through collaborative and integrative approach. International Journal of Business Process Integration and Management, 10(1), 29-41.

Ahmed, W., Najmi, A., Mustafa, Y., & Khan, A. (2019). Developing model to analyze factors affecting firms’ agility and competitive capability: a case of a volatile market. Journal of Modelling in Management, 14(2), 476-491.

Ali, A., Mahfouz, A., & Arisha, A. (2017). Analysing supply chain resilience: integrating the constructs in a concept mapping framework via a systematic literature review. Supply Chain Management, 22(1), 16-39.

Altay, N., Gunasekaran, A., Dubey, R., & Childe, S. J. (2018). Agility and resilience as antecedents of supply chain performance under moderating effects of organizational culture within the humanitarian setting: a dynamic capability view. Production Planning and Control, 29(14), 1158-1174.

Armstrong, J. S., & Overton, T. S. (1977). Estimating nonresponse bias in mail survey. Journal of Marketing Research, 14(3), 396-402.

Asbjørnslett, B. E. (2008). Assessing the vulnerability of supply chains. In G.A. Zsidisin & B. Ritchie (Eds.), Supply chain risk: a handbook of assessment, management & performance (pp. 15-33). New York: Springer.

Azadegan, A., Parast, M.M., Lucianetti, L., Nishant, R., & Blackhurst, J. (2020). Supply chain disruptions and business continuity: an empirical assessment. Decision Sciences, 51(1), 38-73.

Barrales‐Molina, V., Martínez‐López, F. J., & Gázquez‐Abad, J. C. (2014). Dynamic marketing capabilities: toward an integrative framework. International Journal of Management Reviews, 16(4), 397-416.

Barreto, I. (2010). Dynamic capability: a review of past research and an agenda for the future. Journal of Management, 36(1), 256-280.

Bollen, K., & Lennox, R. (1991). Conventional wisdom on measurement: a structural equation perspective. Psychological Bulletin, 110(2), 305-314.

Brusset, X., & Teller, C. (2017). Supply chain capabilities, risks, and resilience. International Journal of Production Economics, 184, 59-68.

Choi, T. Y., Dooley, K. J., & Rungtusanatham, M. (2001). Supply networks and complex adaptive systems: control versus emergence. Journal of Operations Management, 19(3), 351-366.

Craig, C. S., & Douglas, S. P. (1999). International marketing research. New York: Wiley.

Dempster, A. P., Laird, N. M., & Rubin, D. B. (1977). Maximum likelihood from incomplete data via the EM algorithm. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series B. Methodological, 39(1), 1-22.

Donadoni, M., Caniato, F., & Cagliano, R. (2018). Linking product complexity, disruption and performance: the moderating role of supply chain resilience. Supply Chain Forum: An International Journal, 19(4), 300-310.

Dubey, R., Gunasekaran, A., Childe, S. J., Wamba, S.F., Roubaud, D., & Foropon, C. (2021). Empirical investigation of data analytics capability and organizational flexibility as complements to supply chain resilience. International Journal of Production Research, 59(1), 110-128.

Durach, C. F., Wieland, A., & Machuca, J. A. (2015). Antecedents and dimensions of supply chain robustness: a systematic literature review. International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, 45(1-2), 118-137.

El Baz, J., & Ruel, S. (2021). Can supply chain risk management practices mitigate the disruption impacts on supply chains’ resilience and robustness? Evidence from an empirical survey in a Covid-19 outbreak era. International Journal of Production Economics, 233, 107972. PMid:36567758.

Erol, O., Sauser, B. J., & Mansouri, M. (2010). A framework for investigation into extended enterprise resilience. Enterprise Information Systems, 4(2), 111-136.

Fabrigar, L. R., Porter, R. D., & Norris, M. E. (2010). Some things you should know about structural equation modeling but never thought to ask. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 20(2), 221-225.

Fahimnia, B., Jabbarzadeh, A., & Sarkis, J. (2018). Greening versus resilience: a supply chain design perspective. Transportation Research Part E, Logistics and Transportation Review, 119, 129-148.

Fornell, C., & Bookstein, F. L. (1982). Two structural equation models: LISREL and PLS applied to consumer exit-voice theory. Journal of Marketing Research, 19(4), 440-452.

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39-50.

Gligor, D. M., Holcomb, M. C., & Feizabadi, J. (2016). An exploration of the strategic antecedents of firm supply chain agility: the role of a firm’s orientations. International Journal of Production Economics, 179, 24-34.

Haimes, Y. Y. (2009). On the complex definition of risk: a systems-based approach. Risk Analysis, 29(12), 1647-1654. PMid:19948003.

Haimes, Y. Y., Matalas, N. C., Lambert, J. H., Jackson, B. A., & Fellows, J. F. (1998). Reducing vulnerability of water supply systems to attack. Journal of Infrastructure Systems, 4(4), 164-177.

Hair Junior, J. F., William, C. B., Barry, J. B., & Rolph, E. A. (2010). Multivariate data analysis: international version. 7th ed. London: Pearson.

Hallikas, J., Karvonen, I., Pulkkinen, U., Virolainen, V., & Tuominen, M. (2004). Risk management processes in supplier networks. International Journal of Production Economics, 90(1), 47-58.

Heckmann, I., Comes, T., & Nickel, S. (2015). A critical review on supply chain risk–definition, measure and modeling. Omega, 52, 119-132.

Helfat, C. E., & Peteraf, M. A. (2009). Understanding dynamic capabilities: progress along a developmental path. Strategic Organization, 7(1), 91-102.

Helfat, C. E., & Winter, S. G. (2011). Untangling dynamic and operational capabilities: strategy for the (N) ever‐changing world. Strategic Management Journal, 32(11), 1243-1250.

Hohenstein, N. O., Feisel, E., Hartmann, E., & Giunipero, L. (2015). Research on the phenomenon of supply chain resilience: a systematic review and paths for further investigation. International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, 45(1-2), 90-117.

Hosseini, S., Ivanov, D., & Dolgui, A. (2019). Review of quantitative methods for supply chain resilience analysis. Transportation Research Part E, Logistics and Transportation Review, 125, 285-307.

Huma, S., Ahmed, W., & Najmi, A. (2020). Understanding the impact of supply-side decisions and practices on supply risk management. Benchmarking, 27(5), 1769-1792.

Husdal, J. (2010). A conceptual framework for risk and vulnerability in virtual enterprise networks. In S. Ponis (Ed.), Managing risk in virtual enterprise networks: implementing supply chain principles (pp. 1-27). Hershey: IGI Global.

Ivanov, D. (2018). Structural dynamics and resilience in supply chain risk management (Vol. 265). Berlin: Springer.

Ivanov, D., & Dolgui, A. (2020). Viability of intertwined supply networks: extending the supply chain resilience angles towards survivability. A position paper motivated by Covid-19 outbreak. International Journal of Production Research, 58(10), 2904-2915.

Jain, V., Kumar, S., Soni, U., & Chandra, C. (2017). Supply chain resilience: model development and empirical analysis. International Journal of Production Research, 55(22), 6779-6800.

Jajja, M. S. S., Chatha, K. A., & Farooq, S. (2018). Impact of supply chain risk on agility performance: mediating role of supply chain integration. International Journal of Production Economics, 205, 118-138.

Jüttner, U. (2005). Supply chain risk management: understanding the business requirements from a practitioner perspective. International Journal of Logistics Management, 16(1), 120-141.

Jüttner, U., & Maklan, S. (2011). Supply chain resilience in the global financial crisis: an empirical study. Supply Chain Management, 16(4), 246-259.

Kamalahmadi, M., & Parast, M. M. (2016). A review of the literature on the principles of enterprise and supply chain resilience: major findings and directions for future research. International Journal of Production Economics, 171, 116-133.

Kim, J. O., & Mueller, C. W. (1978). Factor analysis: statistical methods and practical issues (Vol. 14). Beverly Hills: Sage.

Kinra, A., Ivanov, D., Das, A., & Dolgui, A. (2020). Ripple effect quantification by supplier risk exposure assessment. International Journal of Production Research, 58(18), 5559-5578.

Klibi, W., Martel, A., & Guitouni, A. (2010). The design of robust value-creating supply chain networks: a critical review. European Journal of Operational Research, 203(2), 283-293.

Kline, R. B. (2011). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. New York: The Guilford Press.

Knemeyer, A. M., Zinn, W., & Eroglu, C. (2009). Proactive planning for catastrophic events in supply chains. Journal of Operations Management, 27(2), 141-153.

Kouvelis, P., Chambers, C., & Wang, H. (2006). Supply chain management research and production and operations management: review, trends, and opportunities. Production and Operations Management, 15(3), 449-469.

Krause, D. R., Handfield, R. B., & Tyler, B. B. (2007). The relationships between supplier development, commitment, social capital accumulation and performance improvement. Journal of Operations Management, 25(2), 528-545.

Kumar, S., & Chandra, C. (2010). Supply chain disruption by avian flu pandemic for US companies: a case study. Transportation Journal, 49(4), 61-73.

Kurniawan, R., Zailani, S. H., Iranmanesh, M., & Rajagopal, P. (2017). The effects of vulnerability mitigation strategies on supply chain effectiveness: risk culture as moderator. Supply Chain Management, 22(1), 1-15.

Kwak, D. W., Seo, Y. J., & Mason, R. (2018). Investigating the relationship between supply chain innovation, risk management capabilities and competitive advantage in global supply chains. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 38(1), 2-21.

Liao, T. W. (2001). Classification and coding approach to part family information under a fuzzy environment. Fussy Sets System, 122(3), 425-441.

Mackay, J., Munoz, A., & Pepper, M. (2020). Conceptualising redundancy and flexibility towards supply chain robustness and resilience. Journal of Risk Research, 23(12), 1541-1561.

Meepetchdee, Y., & Shah, N. (2007). Logistical network design with robustness and complexity considerations. International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, 37(3), 201-222.

Mo, Y., & Harrison, T. P. (2005). A conceptual framework for robust supply chain design under demand uncertainty. In J. Geunes & P. M. Pardalos (Eds.), Supply chain optimization (pp. 243-263). Boston: Springer.

Munoz, A., & Dunbar, M. (2015). On the quantification of operational supply chain resilience. International Journal of Production Research, 53(22), 6736-6751.

Narasimhan, R., Swink, M., & Kim, S. W. (2006). Disentangling leanness and agility: an empirical investigation. Journal of Operations Management, 24(5), 440-457.

Narayanan, S., Narasimhan, R., & Schoenherr, T. (2015). Assessing the contingent effects of collaboration on agility performance in buyer–supplier relationships. Journal of Operations Management, 33-34(1), 140-154.

Paulraj, A., & Chen, I. J. (2007b). Strategic buyer–supplier relationships, information technology and external logistics integration. The Journal of Supply Chain Management, 43(2), 2-14.

Pereira, C. R., Christopher, M., & Silva, A.L. (2014). Achieving supply chain resilience: the role of procurement. Supply Chain Management, 19(5-6), 626-642.

Ribeiro, J. P., & Barbosa-Povoa, A. (2018). Supply chain resilience: definitions and quantitative modelling approaches–a literature review. Computers & Industrial Engineering, 115, 109-122.

Rice, J. B., & Caniato, F. (2003). Building a secure and resilient supply network. Supply Chain Management Review, 7(5), 22-30.

Sangari, M. S., & Razmi, J. (2015). Business intelligence competence, agile capabilities, and agile performance in supply chain: an empirical study. International Journal of Logistics Management, 26(2), 356-380.

Sarkis, J., Talluri, S., & Gunasekaran, A. (2007). A strategic model for agile virtual enterprise partner selection. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 27(11), 1213-1234.

Scholten, K., Sharkey-Scott, P., & Fynes, B. (2014). Mitigation processes – antecedents for building supply chain resilience. Supply Chain Management, 19(2), 211-228.

Shamout, M. D. (2019). Does supply chain analytics enhance supply chain innovation and robustness capability? Organizacija, 52(2), 95-106.

Sharifi, H., & Zhang, Z. (2001). Agile manufacturing in practice-application of a methodology. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 21(5-6), 772-794.

Sillanpää, I. (2014). Implementing supply chain strategy (Ph.D. thesis). University of Vaasa, Vaasa.

Singh, N. P., & Singh, S. (2019). Building supply chain risk resilience: role of big data analytics in supply chain disruption mitigation. Benchmarking, 26(7), 2318-2342.

Singh, N., & Hong, P. (2017). From local to global: developing a business model for Indian MNCs to achieve global competitive advantage. Journal of Asia-Pacific Business, 18(3), 192-219.

Soni, U., Jain, V., & Kumar, S. (2014). Measuring supply chain resilience using a deterministic modeling approach. Computers & Industrial Engineering, 74, 11-25.

Swafford, P. M., Ghosh, S., & Murthy, N. (2008). Achieving supply chain agility through IT integration and flexibility. International Journal of Production Economics, 116(2), 288-297.

Tallon, P. P., & Pinsonneault, A. (2011). Competing perspectives on the link between strategic information technology alignment and organizational agility: insights from a mediation model. Management Information Systems Quarterly, 35(2), 463-486.

Tang, C. S. (2006). Perspectives in supply chain risk management. International Journal of Production Economics, 103(2), 451-488.

Teece, D. J. (2014). A dynamic capabilities-based entrepreneurial theory of the multinational enterprise. Journal of International Business Studies, 45(1), 8-37.

Teece, D., Peteraf, M., & Leih, S. (2016). Dynamic capabilities and organizational agility: risk, uncertainty, and strategy in the innovation economy. California Management Review, 58(4), 13-35.

Teece, D., Pisano, G., & Shuen, A. (1997). Dynamic capabilities and strategic management. Strategic Management Journal, 18(7), 509-533.<509::AID-SMJ882>3.0.CO;2-Z.

Um, J., & Han, N. (2021). Understanding the relationships between global supply chain risk and supply chain resilience: the role of mitigating strategies. Supply Chain Management, 26(2), 240-255.

van der Vegt, G. S., Essens, P., Wahlström, M., & George, G. (2015). Managing risk and resilience. Academy of Management Journal, 58(4), 971-980.

Walker, B., Holling, C. S., Carpenter, S. R., & Kinzig, A. (2004). Resilience, adaptability and transformability in social–ecological systems. Ecology and Society, 9(2), 5.

Wetzels, M., Odekerken-Schroder, G., & Van Oppen, C. (2009). Using PLS path modeling for assessing hierarchical construct models: guidelines and empirical illustration. Management Information Systems Quarterly, 33(1), 177-195.

Wieland, A., & Wallenburg, C. M. (2012). Dealing with supply chain risks: linking risk management practices and strategies to performance. International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, 42(10), 887-905.

Wieland, A., & Wallenburg, C. M. (2013). The influence of relational competencies on supply chain resilience: a relational view. International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, 43(4), 300-320.

Wong, K. K. K. (2013). Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) techniques using SmartPLS. Marketing Bulletin, 24(1), 1-32.

Xu, S., Zhang, X., Feng, L., & Yang, W. (2020). Disruption risks in supply chain management: a literature review based on bibliometric analysis. International Journal of Production Research, 58(11), 3508-3526.

Yang, J., Xie, H., Yu, G., & Liu, M. (2021). Antecedents and consequences of supply chain risk management capabilities: an investigation in the post-coronavirus crisis. International Journal of Production Research, 59(5), 1573-1585.

Yauch, C. A. (2011). Measuring agility as a performance outcome. Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, 22(3), 384-404.

Yusuf, Y. Y., Gunasekaran, A., Musa, A., Dauda, M., El-Berishy, N. M., & Cang, S. (2014). A relational study of supply chain agility, competitiveness and business performance in the oil and gas industry. International Journal of Production Economics, 147, 531-543.

Zahra, S. A., Sapienza, H. J., & Davidsson, P. (2006). Entrepreneurship and dynamic capabilities: a review, model and research agenda. Journal of Management Studies, 43(4), 917-955.

Zeng, A. Z. (2003). Global sourcing: process and design for efficient management. Supply Chain Management, 8(4), 367-379.

Zhou, Y., Sheu, J. B., & Wang, J. (2017). Robustness assessment of urban road network with consideration of multiple hazard events. Risk Analysis, 37(8), 1477-1494. PMid:28437867.

Submitted date:

Accepted date:

64345dafa953956f715a6024 production Articles
Links & Downloads


Share this page
Page Sections