Research Article

The dynamic electric boat charging problem

Camilo Vélez; Alejandro Montoya

Downloads: 0
Views: 50


Paper aims: This paper proposes a new optimization problem named the dynamic electric boat charging problem (DEBCP).

Originality: The problem dynamically determines the speed and charging decisions of an electric boat (EB) to be performed in photovoltaic charging stations (PVCSs).

Research method: The objective function is to minimize the charging plus the battery degradation costs. Considering that the energy consumption of the EB and the solar irradiance for the PVCSs are uncertain due to factors external to the operation, the dynamic component of the DEBCP recalculates the solution to the problem as new information related to these variables is known. To solve the problem, we propose a rolling horizon genetic algorithm. This method constantly reevaluates the speed and charging decisions of the operation. Such decisions are made with a genetic algorithm.

Main findings: Our results show that the recalculations help either reducing the cost of the solution when possible or correcting the operation when needed.

Implications for theory and practice: To evaluate our solution method, we built some test instances based on a future fluvial transport operation with an EB that will be implemented in Colombia. We assess the impact of the dynamic recalculations by comparing the results of the DBECP problem to a scenario following a static solution.


Electric boat, Speed decisions, Charging decisions, Photovoltaic charging stations, Dynamic recalculations


Barré, A., Deguilhem, B., Grolleau, S., Gérard, M., Suard, F., & Riu, D. (2013). A review on lithium-ion battery ageing mechanisms and estimations for automotive applications. Journal of Power Sources, 241, 680-689.

Betancur, E., Osorio-Gómez, G., & Rivera, J. C. (2017). Heuristic optimization for the energy management and race strategy of a solar car. Sustainability, 9(10), 1576.

Bhatti, A. R., Salam, Z., Aziz, M. J. B. A., Yee, K. P., & Ashique, R. H. (2016). Electric vehicles charging using photovoltaic: status and technological review. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews, 54, 34-47.

Bischi, A., Taccari, L., Martelli, E., Amaldi, E., Manzolini, G., Silva, P., Campanari, S., & Macchi, E. (2019). A rolling-horizon optimization algorithm for the long term operational scheduling of cogeneration systems. Energy, 184, 73-90.

Bullard, N. (2019). Electric car price tag shrinks along with battery cost. New York: Bloomberg. Retrieved in September 2019, from

Candela. (2021). How we redefined boating. Stockholm: Candela. Retrieved in 11 September 2023, from

Choi, J. W., & Aurbach, D. (2016). Promise and reality of post-lithium-ion batteries with high energy densities. Nature Reviews. Materials, 1(4), 16013.

Deschênes, A., Gaudreault, J., Vignault, L. P., Bernard, F., & Quimper, C. G. (2020, October 11-14). The fixed route electric vehicle charging problem with nonlinear energy management and variable vehicle speed. In M. Elgendi, & H. Shah-Mansouri (Eds.), 2020 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (SMC) (pp. 1451-1458). New York, United States: IEEE.

Empresas Públicas de Medellín. (2021). Tarifas y costo de energía eléctrica – mercado regulado. Medellín: EPM. Retrieved in January 2021, from

Energética 2030. (2023). ¿En qué consiste la alianza Energética 2030?. Colombia. Retrieved in October 2023, from

Forbes. (2021). What Are The Different Levels Of Electric Vehicle Charging? New Jersey: Forbes. Retrieved in October 2023, from

Giménez, J. (2017). Así es la primera canoa solar del Amazonas. Sharamentsa: El País. Retrieved in March 2021, from

Gkiotsalitis, K., & Van Berkum, E. (2020). An exact method for the bus dispatching problem in rolling horizons. Transportation Research Part C, Emerging Technologies, 110, 143-165.

Han, S., Han, S., & Aki, H. (2014). A practical battery wear model for electric vehicle charging applications. Applied Energy, 113, 1100-1108.

International Energy Agency. (2020). Global EV outlook 2020. Paris: IEA. Retrieved in March 2021, from

Jaimurzina, A., Wilmsmeier, G., & Montiel, D. (2017). Eficiencia energética y movilidad eléctrica fluvial: soluciones sostenibles para la Amazonía. Santiago: CEPAL.

Krupp, C. (2010). Electrifying rural areas: extending electricity infrastructure and services in developing countries. In W. Ascher & C. Krupp (Eds.), Physical infrastructure development: balancing the growth, equity, and environmental imperatives (pp. 203-224). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Kumar, P., & Khani, A. (2021). An algorithm for integrating peer-to-peer ridesharing and schedule-based transit system for first mile/last mile access. Transportation Research Part C, Emerging Technologies, 122, 102891.

Li, D., Zouma, A., Liao, J.-T., & Yang, H.-T. (2020). An energy management strategy with renewable energy and energy storage system for a large electric vehicle charging station. eTransportation, 6, 100076.

Macellari, M., Grasselli, U., Capponi, F. G., & Schirone, L. (2013, June 11-13). Series-connected converters with individual MPPT for BIPV. In Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (Org.), 2013 International Conference on Clean Electrical Power (ICCEP) (pp. 52-56). New York, United States: IEEE.

Minami, S., & Yamachika, N. (2004). A practical theory of the performance of low velocity boat. Journal of Asian Electric Vehicles, 2(1), 535-539.

Molland, A. F., Turnock, S. R., & Hudson, D. A. (2017). Ship resistance and propulsion. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Montoya, A., Guéret, C., Mendoza, J. E., & Villegas, J. G. (2017). The electric vehicle routing problem with nonlinear charging function. Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, 103, 87-110.

National Aeronautics and Space Administration. (2009). Incoming Sunlight. Washington: NASA. Retrieved in October 2023, from

National Solar Radiation Database. (2023). NSRDB data viewer. Golden: NSRDB. Retrieved in January 2021, from

Omar, N., Monem, M. A., Firouz, Y., Salminen, J., Smekens, J., Hegazy, O., Gaulous, H., Mulder, G., Van den Bossche, P., Coosemans, T., & Van Mierlo, J. (2014). Lithium iron phosphate based battery – assessment of the aging parameters and development of cycle life model. Applied Energy, 113, 1575-1585.

Patel, M., Patel, A., & Ghosh, R. (2018). Precipitation nowcasting: leveraging bidirectional LSTM and 1D CNN. arXiv. In press.

Pelletier, S., Jabali, O., & Laporte, G. (2018). Charge scheduling for electric freight vehicles. Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, 115, 246-269.

Pelletier, S., Jabali, O., Laporte, G., & Veneroni, M. (2015). Goods distribution with electric vehicles: battery degradation and behaviour modeling. Montreal: CIRRELT. Technical report CIRRELT-2015-43.

Pelletier, S., Jabali, O., Laporte, G., & Veneroni, M. (2017). Battery degradation and behaviour for electric vehicles: review and numerical analyses of several models. Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, 103, 158-187.

Pillac, V., Gendreau, M., Guéret, C., & Medaglia, A. L. (2013). A review of dynamic vehicle routing problems. European Journal of Operational Research, 225(1), 1-11.

Rahman, I., Vasant, P. M., Singh, B. S. M., Abdullah-Al-Wadud, M., & Adnan, N. (2016). Review of recent trends in optimization techniques for plug-in hybrid, and electric vehicle charging infrastructures. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews, 58, 1039-1047.

Ramakrishna, R., & Scaglione, A. (2016, November 6-9). A compressive sensing framework for the analysis of solar photo-voltaic power. In Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (Org.), 2016 50th Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems and Computers (pp. 308-312). New York, United States: IEEE.

Saini, V., Singh, S., NV, S., & Jain, H. (2016). Genetic algorithm based gear shift optimization for electric vehicles. SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains, 5(2), 348-356.

Savitsky, D. (1964). Hydrodynamic design of planing hulls. Marine Technology and SNAME News, 1(4), 71-95.

Seddig, K., Jochem, P., & Fichtner, W. (2017). Integrating renewable energy sources by electric vehicle fleets under uncertainty. Energy, 141, 2145-2153.

Shepero, M., Lingfors, D., Widén, J., Bright, J. M., & Munkhammar, J. (2020). Estimating the spatiotemporal potential of self-consuming photovoltaic energy to charge electric vehicles in rural and urban nordic areas. Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy, 12(4), 046301.

Shui, C. S., & Szeto, W. (2018). Dynamic green bike repositioning problem—a hybrid rolling horizon artificial bee colony algorithm approach. Transportation Research Part D, Transport and Environment, 60, 119-136.

Singh, P. C. (2020). Time series forecasting. San Francisco: GitHub. Retrieved in January 2021, from

Solartex. (2020). Panel solar 465 Watts Jinko TIGER Mono. Medellín: Solartex. Retrieved in July 2020, from

Vélez, C., & Montoya, A. (2023). The fluvial passenger transport design problem with an Electric Boat. Case Studies on Transport Policy, 12, 100972.

Vélez, C., Villa, D., & Montoya, A. (2020). Infrastructure estimation for a freight/personal transport operation with an Electric Boat on the Magdalena River. In J. C. Figueroa-García, F. S. Garay-Rairán, G. J. Hernández-Pérez & Y. Díaz-Gutierrez (Eds.), Applied computer sciences in engineering: 7th Workshop on Engineering Applications, WEA 2020, Bogota, Colombia, October 7-9, 2020, proceedings (pp. 329-337). Cham: Springer.

Villa, D., & Montoya, A. (2018, April 18-20). A taxonomy of energy consumption models for electric vehicles. In Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (Org.), OVICI-MOYCOT 2018: Joint Conference for Urban Mobility in the Smart City (pp. 1-7). New York, United States: IEEE.

Villa, D., Montoya, A., & Ciro, J. M. (2019). The electric boat charging problem. Production, 29, e20190067.

Villa, D., Montoya, A., & Herrera, A. M. (2020). The electric riverboat charging station location problem. Journal of Advanced Transportation, 2020, 6527924.

Wu, Y., Zhang, J., Ravey, A., Chrenko, D., & Miraoui, A. (2020). Real-time energy management of photovoltaic-assisted electric vehicle charging station by Markov decision process. Journal of Power Sources, 476, 228504.

Zhang, W., Yan, X., & Zhang, D. (2017). Charging station location optimization of electric ship based on backup coverage model. TransNav: International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation, 11(2), 323-327.

Submitted date:

Accepted date:

654e36dfa95395100d621844 production Articles
Links & Downloads


Share this page
Page Sections