Thematic Section - Production Engineering leading the Digital Transformation

Industry 4.0 at Brazilian modular consortium: work, process and knowledge in engine supply chain

Jorge Muniz Junior; Giovanni Pessin Moschetto; Daniel Wintersberger

Downloads: 0
Views: 77


Paper aims: This paper aims to discuss Industry 4.0 (I4.0) impacts on the Brazilian Modular Consortium (BMC) assembly lines related to work - issues correlated with human resources; production - physical resources used in production process; knowledge - associated with creation and sharing of knowledge.

Originality: Findings explore I4.0 research opportunities related to work and human factors on assembly lines. In lieu of gaps in literature, this research further discusses management challenges to support digital transformation and impacts on workers and organizations.

Research method: A case study on Engine Value Chain (EVC) of BMC, which includes MWM, engine manufacturer; Powertrain, engine assembler at BMC; Volkswagen Truck & Bus, BMC responsible. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with four senior managers responsible for I4.0 implementation. Responses were treated via content analysis.

Main findings: The interviewees highlight work and human factors as important for I4.0 implementation, which include workers tasks, skills, nature of work, human resource development, hiring process and organizations strategies. It was also found that knowledge sharing poses a huge challenge.

Implications for theory and practice: The findings contribute with academic interest on work, production and knowledge impacts on assembly lines, and with practitioners on issues related to I4.0 implementation.


Industry 4.0, Brazilian Modular Consortium, Work, Knowledge Management, Production


Abreu, A. R. D. P., Beynon, H., & Ramalho, J. R. (2000). ‘The Dream Factory’: VW’s Modular Production System in Resende, Brazil. Work, Employment and Society, 14(2), 265-282.

Ada, N., Ilic, D., & Sagnak, M. (2021). A framework for new workforce skills in the era of industry 4.0. International Journal of Mathematical. Engineering and Management Sciences, 6(3), 771.

Archanjo de Souza, D. S. D. O., Pedro Salgado, A. M., Marins, F. A. S., & Muniz, J. (2020). The influence of leaders’ characteristics on the relationship between leadership and knowledge management. Knowledge Management Research and Practice, 18(4), 462-473.

Baena, F., Guarin, A., Mora, J., Sauza, J., & Retat, S. (2017). Learning factory: the path to industry 4.0. Procedia Manufacturing, 9, 73-80.

Becker, T., Blocher, A., Bücker, I., Drewel, M., Faath, A., Harland, T., & Zeller, V. (2017).Industrie 4.0 Maturity Index. Managing the Digital Transformation of Companies. Herbert Utz Verlag.

Benotsmane, R., Kovács, G., & Dudás, L. (2019). Economic, social impacts and operation of smart factories in Industry 4.0 focusing on simulation and artificial intelligence of collaborating robots. Social Sciences, 8(5), 143.

Bernardes, E., Muniz Junior, J., & Nakano, D. (2019). Pesquisa qualitativa em engenharia de produção e gestão de operações. São Paulo: Atlas.

Cassia, A. R., Costa, I., da Silva, V. H. C., & de Oliveira Neto, G. C. (2020). Systematic literature review for the development of a conceptual model on the relationship between knowledge sharing, information technology infrastructure and innovative capability. Technology Analysis and Strategic Management, 32(7), 801-821.

Cyril Eze, U., Guan Gan Goh, G., Yih Goh, C., & Ling Tan, T. (2013). Perspectives of SMEs on knowledge sharing. Vine, 43(2), 210-236.

Dalenogare, L. S., Benitez, G. B., Ayala, N. F., & Frank, A. G. (2018). The expected contribution of Industry 4.0 technologies for industrial performance. International Journal of Production Economics, 204, 383-394.

Eisenhardt, K. M. (1989). Building theories from case study research. Academy of Management Review, 14(4), 532-550.

Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council - EPSRC. (2018). Manufacturing the future: standard research proposals. EPSRC. Retrieved in 2019, November 28, from

Erol, S., Jäger, A., Hold, P., Ott, K., & Sihn, W. (2016). Tangible Industry 4.0: a scenario-based approach to learning for the future of production. Procedia CIRP, 54, 13-18.

European Commission. (2021). Industry 5.0. Retrieved in 2021, November 12, from:

European Parliament. (2016). Industry 4.0. Directorate General for Internal Policies, Policy Department A: Economic and Scientific Policy. Study for the ITRE committee. Retrieved in 2019, November 28, from

Executive Office of the President of the United States. (2018). Strategy for American Leadership in Advanced Manufacturing (35 p.). Washington: National Science and Technology Council. Retrieved in 2019, November 28, from

Goswami, M., & Daultani, Y. (2022). Make-in-India and industry 4.0: Technology readiness of select firms, barriers and socio-technical implications. The TQM Journal, 34(6), 1485-1505.

Graneheim, U. H., & Lundman, B. (2004). Qualitative content analysis in nursing research: concepts, procedures and measures to achieve trustworthiness. Nurse Education Today, 24(2), 105-112. PMid:14769454.

Grzybowska, K., & Łupicka, A. (2017). Key competencies for Industry 4.0. Economics & Management Innovations, 1(1), 250-253.

Hariharasudan, A., & Kot, S. (2018). A scoping review on Digital English and Education 4.0 for Industry 4.0. Social Sciences, 7(11), 227.

Hecklau, F., Galeitzke, M., Flachs, S., & Kohl, H. (2016). Holistic approach for human resource management in Industry 4.0. Procedia CIRP, 54, 1-6.

Hernandez-de-Menendez, M., Morales-Menendez, R., Escobar, C. A., & McGovern, M. (2020). Competencies for industry 4.0. International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing, 14(4), 1511-1524.

Hong, D., Suh, E., & Koo, C. (2011). Developing strategies for overcoming barriers to knowledge sharing based on conversational knowledge management: a case study of a financial company. Expert Systems with Applications, 38(12), 14417-14427.

IndustriALL Global Union. (2017). The challenge of industry 4.0 and the demand for new answers. IndustriALL Global Union. Retrieved in 2021, November 12, from

Ipe, M. (2003). Knowledge sharing in organizations: a conceptual framework. Human Resource Development Review, 2(4), 337-359.

Jerman, A., Pejić Bach, M., & Aleksić, A. (2020). Transformation towards smart factory system: Examining new job profiles and competencies. Systems Research and Behavioral Science, 37(2), 388-402.

Kaasinen, E., Schmalfuß, F., Özturk, C., Aromaa, S., Boubekeur, M., Heilala, J., Heikkilä, P., Kuula, T., Liinasuo, M., Mach, S., Mehta, R., Petäjä, E., & Walter, T. (2020). Empowering and engaging industrial workers with Operator 4.0 solutions. Computers & Industrial Engineering, 139, 105678.

Karre, H., Hammer, M., Kleindienst, M., & Ramsauer, C. (2017). Transition towards an Industry 4.0 state of the LeanLab at Graz University of Technology. Procedia Manufacturing, 9, 206-213.

Kipper, L. M., Furstenau, L. B., Hoppe, D., Frozza, R., & Iepsen, S. (2020). Scopus scientific mapping production in industry 4.0 (2011-2018): a bibliometric analysis. International Journal of Production Research, 58(6), 1605-1627.

Kipper, L. M., Iepsen, S., Dal Forno, A. J., Frozza, R., Furstenau, L., Agnes, J., & Cossul, D. (2021). Scientific mapping to identify competencies required by industry 4.0. Technology in Society, 64, 101454.

Kotha, S. (1995). Mass customization: implementing the emerging paradigm for competitive advantage. Strategic Management Journal, 16(S1), 21-42.

Kuo, F. Y., & Young, M. L. (2008). Predicting knowledge sharing practices through intention: a test of competing models. Computers in Human Behavior, 24(6), 2697-2722.

Lu, Y. (2017). Industry 4.0: a survey on technologies, applications and open research issues. Journal of Industrial Information Integration, 6, 1-10.

Maisiri, W., Darwish, H., & Van Dyk, L. (2019). An investigation of industry 4.0 skills requirements. South African Journal of Industrial Engineering, 30(3), 90-105.

Maisiri, W., & van Dyk, L. (2021). Industry 4.0 skills: a perspective of the South African manufacturing industry. SA Journal of Human Resource Management, 19, 1416.

Manesh, M. F., Pellegrini, M. M., Marzi, G., & Dabic, M. (2020). Knowledge management in the fourth industrial revolution: mapping the literature and scoping future avenues. IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, 68(1), 289-300.

Melo, J. C., Rays Filho, I., Guerra, B. F., & Muniz Junior, J. (2022). Preparação dos trabalhadores para a I4.0: revisão sistemática da literatura.Exacta, 1-22.

Moher, D., Liberati, A., Tetzlaff, J., Altman, D. G., & PRISMA Group (2010). Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. International Journal of Surgery, 8(5), 336-341. PMid:20171303.

Müller, J. M. (2019). Assessing the barriers to Industry 4.0 implementation from a workers’ perspective. IFAC-PapersOnLine, 52(13), 2189-2194.

Muniz Junior, J. Ribeiro, V. B., & Pradhan, N. (2021). Knowledge-based assessment applied to lean brazilian toyota plants: employees’ perceptions. International Journal of Knowledge Management, 17(2), 1-22.

Muniz Junior, J., Batista Junior, E. D., & Loureiro, G. (2010). Knowledge-based integrated Production Management Model applied to automotive companies. International Journal of Knowledge Management Studies, 4(3), 301-318.

Muniz Junior, J., Wintersberger, D., & Hong, J. L. (2022a). Worker and manager judgments about factors that facilitate knowledge‐sharing: insights from a Brazilian automotive assembly line. Knowledge and Process Management, 29(2), 132-146.

Muniz Junior, J., Valentim, M. L. P., Wintersberger, D., Ramirez, P., & Zhang, Y. (2022b). The relationship between Industry 4.0 with official Brazilian actions and the 2030 Agenda. In B. M. Fernandes (Org.), Building territories based on GDS leaving no one behind. São Paulo: UNESP.

Nakano, D., & Muniz Junior, J. (2018). Writing the literature review for empirical papers. Production, 28(0), 28.

Novakova, L. (2020). The impact of technology development on the future of the labour market in the Slovak Republic. Technology in Society, 62, 101256.

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development - OECD. (2017). Digital economy outlook. Retrieved in 2021, August 12, from

Organisation Internationale des Constructeurs d’Automobiles - OICA. (2021). Production statistics. Retrieved in 2022, June 3, from

Peruzzini, M., & Pellicciari, M. (2017). A framework to design a human-centred adaptive manufacturing system for aging workers. Advanced Engineering Informatics, 33, 330-349.

Prifti, L., Knigge, M., Kienegger, H., & Krcmar, H. (2017). A competency model for "Industrie 4.0" employees. In J. M. Leimeister & W. Brenner (Eds.), Proceedings der 13 Internationalen Tagung Wirtschafts informatik. St. Gallen: Wirtschafts informatik.

Prinz, C., Morlock, F., Freith, S., Kreggenfeld, N., Kreimeier, D., & Kuhlenkötter, B. (2016). Learning factory modules for smart factories in industrie 4.0. Procedia CIRP, 54, 113-118.

Resman, M., Turk, M., & Herakovič, N. (2021). Methodology for planning smart factory. Procedia CIRP, 97, 401-406.

Ribeiro, V. B., Nakano, D., Muniz Junior, J., & Oliveira, R. B. D. (2022). Knowledge management and Industry 4.0: a critical analysis and future agenda. Gestão & Produção, 29, 29.

Rodriguez, I. A., Muniz Junior, J., & Munyon, T. P. (2021). Exploring the Relationship Between Organizational Politic and Knowledge Sharing in Brazilian Modular Consortium. International Journal of Knowledge Management, 17(4), 76-92.

Shamim, S., Cang, S., Yu, H., & Li, Y. (2016). Management approaches for Industry 4.0: a human resource management perspective. InProceedings of the 2016 IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC)(pp. 5309-5316). USA: IEEE.

Sié, L., & Yakhlef, A. (2009). Passion and expertise knowledge transfer. Journal of Knowledge Management, 13(4), 175-186.

Siemens. (2015). On the Way to Industrie 4.0: The Digital Enterprise. Presentation. Retrieved in 2019, November 28, from

Sima, V., Gheorghe, I. G., Subić, J., & Nancu, D. (2020). Influences of the industry 4.0 revolution on the human capital development and consumer behavior: a systematic review. Sustainability, 12(10), 4035.

Škrinjarić, B., & Domadenik, P. (2020). Examining the role of key competences in firm performance. International Journal of Manpower, 41(4), 391-416.

Song, S., Shi, X., Song, G., & Huq, F. A. (2021). Linking digitalization and human capital to shape supply chain integration in omni-channel retailing. Industrial Management & Data Systems, 121(11), 2298-2317.

Spöttl, G., & Windelband, L. (2021). The 4th industrial revolution-its impact on vocational skills. Journal of Education and Work, 34(1), 29-52.

Stemler, S. (2000). An overview of content analysis. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 7(1), 17.

Strohmeier, S. (2020). Smart HRM-a Delphi study on the application and consequences of the Internet of Things in Human Resource Management. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 31(18), 2289-2318.

Tohidinia, Z., & Mosakhani, M. (2010). Knowledge sharing behaviour and its predictors. Industrial Management & Data Systems, 110(4), 611-631.

Trotta, D., & Garengo, P. (2018, March). Industry 4.0 key research topics: a bibliometric review. InProceedings of the 2018 7th International Conference on Industrial Technology and Management (ICITM)(pp. 113-117). USA: IEEE.

Uhlemann, T. H. J., Schock, C., Lehmann, C., Freiberger, S., & Steinhilper, R. (2017). The digital twin: demonstrating the potential of real time data acquisition in production systems. Procedia Manufacturing, 9, 113-120.

Valentina, D. P., Valentina, D. S., Salvatore, M., & Stefano, R. (2021). Smart operators: How Industry 4.0 is affecting the worker’s performance in manufacturing contexts. Procedia Computer Science, 180, 958-967.

Vrchota, J., Mařiková, M., Řehoř, P., Rolínek, L., & Toušek, R. (2019). Human resources readiness for industry 4.0. Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity, 6(1), 3.

Wang, S., & Noe, R. A. (2010). Knowledge sharing: a review and directions for future research. Human Resource Management Review, 20(2), 115-131.

Wibowo, E. B., Legionosuko, T., Mahroza, J., & Chandra Jaya, Y. (2020). Industry 4.0: challenges and opportunities in competency development for defense apparatus’ human resources. International Journal of Advanced Science and Technology, 29(7), 45-60.

Wollschlaeger, M., Sauter, T., & Jasperneite, J. (2017). The future of industrial communication: automation networks in the era of the internet of things and industry 4.0. IEEE Industrial Electronics Magazine, 11(1), 17-27.

Submitted date:

Accepted date:

641ddf8ca95395634a390813 production Articles
Links & Downloads


Share this page
Page Sections