Production
https://prod.org.br/doi/10.1590/S0103-65132012005000064?lang=en
Production
Article

Ajuste e balanceamento do portfólio de projetos: o caso de uma empresa do setor químico

Project portfolio adjustment and balance: a case study in the chemical sector

Padovani, Marisa; Carvalho, Marly Monteiro de; Muscat, Antonio Rafael N.

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Resumo

O objetivo deste trabalho é compreender a etapa de ajuste no contexto da gestão do portfólio de projetos, destacando sua relação com os processos de categorização e balanceamento. A pesquisa realizada tem caráter qualitativo, sendo a abordagem adotada o estudo de caso longitudinal. A pesquisa foi desenvolvida em uma empresa do setor químico brasileiro. As evidências, de várias fontes, foram coletadas através de entrevistas, documentos e dados dos sistemas corporativos. Para a compreensão do portfólio de projetos da empresa foram coletados e analisados dados de mil projetos realizados entre 2001 e 2005. Os resultados indicam que maior atenção é dada à etapa de seleção, negligenciando a etapa de ajuste. A adoção de ferramentas de balanceamento permitiu evidenciar lacunas e fontes de desbalanceamento no portfólio de projetos, promovendo o debate entre os tomadores de decisão no que concerne ao viés introduzido pelos critérios adotados na etapa de seleção e levantando a necessidade de introdução de uma sistemática de ajuste e balanceamento. Observou-se que sem uma adequada categorização dos projetos da empresa seria difícil promover a análise de balanceamento.

Palavras-chave

Gestão de portfólio. Seleção do projeto. Balanceamento. Ajuste do portfólio. Diagrama de bolhas

Abstract

This article aims to understand the adjustment stage of project portfolio management, highlighting its relationship with the processes of categorization and balancing. It is a qualitative research. The longitudinal case study approach was adopted. The research was carried out in a Brazilian chemical company. Several sources of evidence were collected through interviews, documents and data from the enterprise’s systems. Data from 1,000 projects between 2001 and 2005 were collected and analyzed in order to understand the project portfolio. The results indicated that more attention is given to the selection stage, neglecting the adjustment stage. The adoption of balancing tools showed gaps and sources of imbalance in the project portfolio, promoting discussion among decision makers regarding the bias introduced by the criteria in the selection stage and raising the need to introduce systematic adjustment and balance. It was possible to observe that without a proper project categorization, it would be difficult to promote the balancing analysis.

Keywords

Portfolio Management. Project selection. Balance. Portfolio adjustment. Bubble chart.

References

ADLER, P. S.; FERDOWS, K. The chief technology officer. California Management Review, p. 55-62, 1990.

AGRESTI, W. W.; HARRIS, R. M. Practical Profiles for Managing Systems Engineering R&D. IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, v. 56, n. 2, p. 341-351, 2009. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TEM.2009.2013825

ANGELOU, G.; ECONOMIDES, A. A Decision Analysis Framework for Prioritizing a Portfolio of ICT Infrastructure Projects. IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, v. 55, n. 3, p. 479-495, 2008. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TEM.2008.922649

ARCHER, N. P.; GHASEMZADEH, F. An integrated framework for project portfolio selection. International Journal of Project Management, v. 17, n. 4, p. 207-216, 1999. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0263-7863(98)00032-5

ARTTO, K. A.; DIETRICH, P. H. Strategic Business Management through Multiple Projects. In: MORRIS, P.; PINTO, J. K. The Wiley Guide to Project, Program & Portfolio Management. Wiley, 2004. cap.1, p. 1-33.

BITMAN, W. R. R&D portfolio management framework for sustained competitive advantage. In: IEEE INTERNATIONAL ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT CONFERENCE, 2005. Proceedings... IEEE, 2005. p. 775-779. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/IEMC.2005.1559254

BITMAN, W. R.; SHARIF, N. A Conceptual Framework for Ranking R&D Projects. IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, v. 55, n. 2, p. 267-278, 2008. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TEM.2008.919725

BUYS, A. J.; STANDER, M. J. Linking Projects to Business Strategy through Project Portfolio Management. South African Journal of Industrial Engineering, v. 21, p. 59-68, 2010.

CARVALHO, M. M. Inovação: estratégia e comunidades de conhecimento. São Paulo: Editora Atlas, 2009. 161 p.

CARVALHO, M. M.; RABECHINI JUNIOR, R. Construindo competências para gerenciar projetos: teoria e casos. 2. ed. São Paulo: Editora Atlas, 2007. 317 p.

CASTRO, H. G.; CARVALHO, M. M. Gerenciamento do portfolio de projetos: um estudo exploratório. Gestão & Produção, v. 17, n. 2, p. 283-296, 2010a. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0104-530X2010000200006

CASTRO, H. G.; CARVALHO, M. M. Gerenciamento do portfólio de projetos (PPM): estudos de caso. Produção, v. 20, n. 3, p. 303-321, 2010b. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0103-65132010005000044

CARON, F.; FUMAGALLI, M.; RIGAMONTI, A. Engineering and contracting projects: A value at risk based approach to portfolio balancing. International Journal of Project Management, v. 25, n. 6, p. 569-578, 2007. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijproman.2007.01.016

CHAO, R. O.; KAVADIAS, S. A Theoretical Framework for Managing the New Product Development Portfolio: When and How to Use Strategic Buckets. Management Science, v. 54, n. 5, p. 907-921, 2008. http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.1070.0828

CHESBROUGH, H. W.; TEECE, D. J. When is virtual virtuous? Harvard Business Review, v. 74, n. 1, p. 65-73, 1996.

CHRISTENSEN, C. M.; OVERDORF, M. Meeting the challenge of disruptive change. Harvard Business Review, p. 66-76, 2000.

CHRISTENSEN, C. M., RAYNOR, M., VERLINDEN, M. Skate to where the money will be. Harvard Business Review, v. 79, n. 10, p. 72-81, 2001.

COITINHO, M. Influência da incerteza no processo de decisão: Priorização de projetos de melhoria. 2006. Dissertação (Mestrado em Engenharia) - Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, 2006.

COOPER, R. G.; EDGETT, S. J.; KLEINSCHMIDT, E. J. Best practices for managing R&D portfolios. Research Technology Management, v. 41, n. 4, p. 20-34, 1998.

COOPER, R. G.; EDGETT, S. J.; KLEINSCHMIDT, E. J. Maximizing productivity in product innovation. Research Technology Management, v. 40, n. 5, p. 16-29, 1997.

COOPER, R.; EDGETT, S.; KLEINSCHMIDT, E. New product management: practices and performance. Journal of Product Innovation Management, v. 16, p. 333, 1999. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0737-6782(99)00005-3

COOPER, R.; EDGETT, S.; KLEINSCHMIDT, E. New Problems, New Solutions: Making Portfolio Management More Effective. Research and Technology Management, v. 43, n. 2, p. 18-33, 2000.

COOPER, R.; EDGETT, S.; KLEINSCHMIDT, E. Portfolio Management for New Product Development. R&D Management, v. 31, n. 4, p. 361-380, 2001. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-9310.00225

COOPER, R. Managing Technology Development Projects. Research Technology Management, n. 5, p. 23-31, 2006.

COOPER, R. Perspective: The Stage-Gate - Idea-too-Launch Process- update, what's new, and Nexgen Systems. The Journal of Product Innovation Management, v. 25, p. 213-232, 2008. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-5885.2008.00296.x

DYE, L. D.; PENNYPACKER, J. S. Project portfolio management and managing multiple projects: two sides of the same coin. In: PROJECT MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE ANNUAL SEMINARS & SYMPOSIUM, 2000, Houston, Texas, USA. Proceedings... Maryland: Project Management Institute, 2000.

EISENHARDT, K. M.; BROWN, S. L. Patching restitching Business portfolios in dynamic markets. Harvard Business Review, v. 77, n. 3, p. 72-82, 2000.

ELONEN, S.; ARTTO, K. A. Problems in managing internal development projects in multi-project environments. International Journal of Project Management, v. 21, n. 6, p. 395-402, 2003. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0263-7863(02)00097-2

ENGWALL, M.; JERBRANT, A. The resource allocation syndrome: the prime challenge of multi-project management. International Journal of Project Management, v. 21, n. 6, p. 403-409, 2002. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0263-7863(02)00113-8

GOLDRATT, E. M. Corrente crítica. São Paulo: Livraria Nobel, 1998.

JOLLY, D. The Issue of weightings in technology portfólio management. Technovation, v. 23, n. 5, p. 383-391, 2003. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0166-4972(02)00157-8

LAGER, T. A structural analysis of process development in process industry: a new classification system for strategic project selection and portfolio balancing. R&D Management, v. 32, p. 87- 95, 2002. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-9310.00241

LYCETT, M.; RASSAU, A.; DANSON, J. Programme management: a critical review. International Journal of Project Management, v. 22, n. 4, p. 289-299, 2004. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijproman.2003.06.001

McDONAUGH III, E. F.; SPITAL, F. Managing Project Portfolios: Not theory but day-to-day management policies and actions will determine the success of a new product development effort, this study shows. Research Technology Management, v. 46, n. 3, p. 40-46, 2003.

MAVROTAS, G.; DIAKOULAKI, D.; KOURENTZIS, A. Selection among ranked projects under segmentation, policy and logical constraints. European Journal of Operational Research, v. 187, n. 1, p. 177-192, 2008. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejor.2007.03.010

MAYRINK, E. F.; MACEDO-SOARES, T. D. L. A.; CAVALIERI, A. Adequação estratégica de projetos: o caso da Eletronuclear. Revista de Administração Pública, v. 43, n. 6, p. 1217-1250, 2009. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0034-76122009000600002

MCFARLAN, F.W. Portfolio approach to information. Harvard Business Review, p. 142 -150, Sept./Oct, 1981.

MIGUEL, P. C. Implementação da gestão de portfolio de novos produtos: um estudo de caso. Produção, v. 18, n. 2, p. 388-404, 2008. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0103-65132008000200014

MIKKOLA, J. H. Portfolio management of R&D projects: implications for innovation management. Technovation, v. 21, n. 7, p. 423-435, 2001. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0166-4972(00)00062-6

MORAES, R. O.; LAURINDO, F. J. B. Um estudo de caso de gestão de portfolio de projetos de tecnologia da informação. Gestão & Produção, v. 10, n. 3, p. 311-328, 2003.

OSAMA, A. Multi-Attribute Strategy and Performance Archtectures in R&D - The Case of the Balanced Scorecard. 2006. Dissertação (Mestrado)-Pardee RAND Graduate School, 2006.

PADOVANI, M.; CARVALHO, M. M.; MUSCAT, A. R. N. Seleção e alocação de recursos em portfólio de projetos: estudo de caso no setor químico. Gestão & Produção, v.17, n. 1, p. 157-180, 2010. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0104-530X2010000100013

PADOVANI, M. Apoio à decisão na seleção do portfólio de projetos: uma abordagem híbrida usando os métodos AHP e programação inteira. 2007. Dissertação (Mestrado em Engenharia de Produção)-Escola Politécnica, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, 2007

PRIETO, V.; CARVALHO, M. M.; FISCHMANN, A. Análise comparativa de alinhamento estratégico. Produção, v. 19, n. 2, p. 323-338, 2009.

PROJECT MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE - PMI. The standard for portfolio management. PMI, 2006.

RABECHINI JUNIOR, R.; MAXIMIANO, A. C. A.; MARTINS, V. A. A adoção de gerenciamento de portfólio como uma alternativa gerencial: o caso de uma empresa prestadora de serviço de interconexão eletrônica. Produção, v. 15, n. 3, p. 416-433, 2005.

ROUSSEL, P.; SAAD, K. N.; ERICKSON, T. J. Third generation R&D managing the link to corporate strategy. Cambridge: Harvard Business School Press, 1991.

SHENHAR, A. J. Contingent management in temporary, dynamic organizations: The comparative analysis of projects. The Journal of High Technology Management Research, v. 12, n. 2, p. 239-271, 2001. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1047-8310(01)00039-6

TRAPPEY, C. et al. A strategic product portfolio management methodology considering R&D resource constraints for engineering-to-order industries. International Journal of Technology Management, v. 48, n. 2, p. 258-276, 2009. http://dx.doi.org/10.1504/IJTM.2009.024919

UTTERBACK, J. M. Mastering the dynamics of innovation. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1994.

VARMA, V. A. et al. A framework for addressing stochastic and combinatorial aspects of scheduling and resource allocation in pharmaceutical R&D pipelines. Computers & Chemical Engineering, v. 32, n. 4-5, p. 1000-1015, 2008. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compchemeng.2007.05.006

VOSS, C.; TSIKRITSIS, N.; FROLICH, M. Case research in operations management. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, v. 22, n. 2, p. 195-219, 2002. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/01443570210414329

WHEELWRIGHT, S. C.; CLARK, K. B. Revolutionizing product development: quantum leaps in speed efficiency and quality. New York: Free Press, 1992.

ADLER, P. S.; FERDOWS, K. The chief technology officer. California Management Review, p. 55-62, 1990.

AGRESTI, W. W.; HARRIS, R. M. Practical Profiles for Managing Systems Engineering R&D. IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, v. 56, n. 2, p. 341-351, 2009. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TEM.2009.2013825

ANGELOU, G.; ECONOMIDES, A. A Decision Analysis Framework for Prioritizing a Portfolio of ICT Infrastructure Projects. IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, v. 55, n. 3, p. 479-495, 2008. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TEM.2008.922649

ARCHER, N. P.; GHASEMZADEH, F. An integrated framework for project portfolio selection. International Journal of Project Management, v. 17, n. 4, p. 207-216, 1999. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0263-7863(98)00032-5

ARTTO, K. A.; DIETRICH, P. H. Strategic Business Management through Multiple Projects. In: MORRIS, P.; PINTO, J. K. The Wiley Guide to Project, Program & Portfolio Management. Wiley, 2004. cap.1, p. 1-33.

BITMAN, W. R. R&D portfolio management framework for sustained competitive advantage. In: IEEE INTERNATIONAL ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT CONFERENCE, 2005. Proceedings... IEEE, 2005. p. 775-779. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/IEMC.2005.1559254

BITMAN, W. R.; SHARIF, N. A Conceptual Framework for Ranking R&D Projects. IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, v. 55, n. 2, p. 267-278, 2008. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TEM.2008.919725

BUYS, A. J.; STANDER, M. J. Linking Projects to Business Strategy through Project Portfolio Management. South African Journal of Industrial Engineering, v. 21, p. 59-68, 2010.

CARVALHO, M. M. Inovação: estratégia e comunidades de conhecimento. São Paulo: Editora Atlas, 2009. 161 p.

CARVALHO, M. M.; RABECHINI JUNIOR, R. Construindo competências para gerenciar projetos: teoria e casos. 2. ed. São Paulo: Editora Atlas, 2007. 317 p.

CASTRO, H. G.; CARVALHO, M. M. Gerenciamento do portfolio de projetos: um estudo exploratório. Gestão & Produção, v. 17, n. 2, p. 283-296, 2010a. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0104-530X2010000200006

CASTRO, H. G.; CARVALHO, M. M. Gerenciamento do portfólio de projetos (PPM): estudos de caso. Produção, v. 20, n. 3, p. 303-321, 2010b. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0103-65132010005000044

CARON, F.; FUMAGALLI, M.; RIGAMONTI, A. Engineering and contracting projects: A value at risk based approach to portfolio balancing. International Journal of Project Management, v. 25, n. 6, p. 569-578, 2007. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijproman.2007.01.016

CHAO, R. O.; KAVADIAS, S. A Theoretical Framework for Managing the New Product Development Portfolio: When and How to Use Strategic Buckets. Management Science, v. 54, n. 5, p. 907-921, 2008. http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.1070.0828

CHESBROUGH, H. W.; TEECE, D. J. When is virtual virtuous? Harvard Business Review, v. 74, n. 1, p. 65-73, 1996.

CHRISTENSEN, C. M.; OVERDORF, M. Meeting the challenge of disruptive change. Harvard Business Review, p. 66-76, 2000.

CHRISTENSEN, C. M., RAYNOR, M., VERLINDEN, M. Skate to where the money will be. Harvard Business Review, v. 79, n. 10, p. 72-81, 2001.

COITINHO, M. Influência da incerteza no processo de decisão: Priorização de projetos de melhoria. 2006. Dissertação (Mestrado em Engenharia) - Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, 2006.

COOPER, R. G.; EDGETT, S. J.; KLEINSCHMIDT, E. J. Best practices for managing R&D portfolios. Research Technology Management, v. 41, n. 4, p. 20-34, 1998.

COOPER, R. G.; EDGETT, S. J.; KLEINSCHMIDT, E. J. Maximizing productivity in product innovation. Research Technology Management, v. 40, n. 5, p. 16-29, 1997.

COOPER, R.; EDGETT, S.; KLEINSCHMIDT, E. New product management: practices and performance. Journal of Product Innovation Management, v. 16, p. 333, 1999. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0737-6782(99)00005-3

COOPER, R.; EDGETT, S.; KLEINSCHMIDT, E. New Problems, New Solutions: Making Portfolio Management More Effective. Research and Technology Management, v. 43, n. 2, p. 18-33, 2000.

COOPER, R.; EDGETT, S.; KLEINSCHMIDT, E. Portfolio Management for New Product Development. R&D Management, v. 31, n. 4, p. 361-380, 2001. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-9310.00225

COOPER, R. Managing Technology Development Projects. Research Technology Management, n. 5, p. 23-31, 2006.

COOPER, R. Perspective: The Stage-Gate - Idea-too-Launch Process- update, what's new, and Nexgen Systems. The Journal of Product Innovation Management, v. 25, p. 213-232, 2008. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-5885.2008.00296.x

DYE, L. D.; PENNYPACKER, J. S. Project portfolio management and managing multiple projects: two sides of the same coin. In: PROJECT MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE ANNUAL SEMINARS & SYMPOSIUM, 2000, Houston, Texas, USA. Proceedings... Maryland: Project Management Institute, 2000.

EISENHARDT, K. M.; BROWN, S. L. Patching restitching Business portfolios in dynamic markets. Harvard Business Review, v. 77, n. 3, p. 72-82, 2000.

ELONEN, S.; ARTTO, K. A. Problems in managing internal development projects in multi-project environments. International Journal of Project Management, v. 21, n. 6, p. 395-402, 2003. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0263-7863(02)00097-2

ENGWALL, M.; JERBRANT, A. The resource allocation syndrome: the prime challenge of multi-project management. International Journal of Project Management, v. 21, n. 6, p. 403-409, 2002. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0263-7863(02)00113-8

GOLDRATT, E. M. Corrente crítica. São Paulo: Livraria Nobel, 1998.

JOLLY, D. The Issue of weightings in technology portfólio management. Technovation, v. 23, n. 5, p. 383-391, 2003. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0166-4972(02)00157-8

LAGER, T. A structural analysis of process development in process industry: a new classification system for strategic project selection and portfolio balancing. R&D Management, v. 32, p. 87- 95, 2002. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-9310.00241

LYCETT, M.; RASSAU, A.; DANSON, J. Programme management: a critical review. International Journal of Project Management, v. 22, n. 4, p. 289-299, 2004. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijproman.2003.06.001

McDONAUGH III, E. F.; SPITAL, F. Managing Project Portfolios: Not theory but day-to-day management policies and actions will determine the success of a new product development effort, this study shows. Research Technology Management, v. 46, n. 3, p. 40-46, 2003.

MAVROTAS, G.; DIAKOULAKI, D.; KOURENTZIS, A. Selection among ranked projects under segmentation, policy and logical constraints. European Journal of Operational Research, v. 187, n. 1, p. 177-192, 2008. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejor.2007.03.010

MAYRINK, E. F.; MACEDO-SOARES, T. D. L. A.; CAVALIERI, A. Adequação estratégica de projetos: o caso da Eletronuclear. Revista de Administração Pública, v. 43, n. 6, p. 1217-1250, 2009. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0034-76122009000600002

MCFARLAN, F.W. Portfolio approach to information. Harvard Business Review, p. 142 -150, Sept./Oct, 1981.

MIGUEL, P. C. Implementação da gestão de portfolio de novos produtos: um estudo de caso. Produção, v. 18, n. 2, p. 388-404, 2008. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0103-65132008000200014

MIKKOLA, J. H. Portfolio management of R&D projects: implications for innovation management. Technovation, v. 21, n. 7, p. 423-435, 2001. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0166-4972(00)00062-6

MORAES, R. O.; LAURINDO, F. J. B. Um estudo de caso de gestão de portfolio de projetos de tecnologia da informação. Gestão & Produção, v. 10, n. 3, p. 311-328, 2003.

OSAMA, A. Multi-Attribute Strategy and Performance Archtectures in R&D - The Case of the Balanced Scorecard. 2006. Dissertação (Mestrado)-Pardee RAND Graduate School, 2006.

PADOVANI, M.; CARVALHO, M. M.; MUSCAT, A. R. N. Seleção e alocação de recursos em portfólio de projetos: estudo de caso no setor químico. Gestão & Produção, v.17, n. 1, p. 157-180, 2010. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0104-530X2010000100013

PADOVANI, M. Apoio à decisão na seleção do portfólio de projetos: uma abordagem híbrida usando os métodos AHP e programação inteira. 2007. Dissertação (Mestrado em Engenharia de Produção)-Escola Politécnica, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, 2007

PRIETO, V.; CARVALHO, M. M.; FISCHMANN, A. Análise comparativa de alinhamento estratégico. Produção, v. 19, n. 2, p. 323-338, 2009.

PROJECT MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE - PMI. The standard for portfolio management. PMI, 2006.

RABECHINI JUNIOR, R.; MAXIMIANO, A. C. A.; MARTINS, V. A. A adoção de gerenciamento de portfólio como uma alternativa gerencial: o caso de uma empresa prestadora de serviço de interconexão eletrônica. Produção, v. 15, n. 3, p. 416-433, 2005.

ROUSSEL, P.; SAAD, K. N.; ERICKSON, T. J. Third generation R&D managing the link to corporate strategy. Cambridge: Harvard Business School Press, 1991.

SHENHAR, A. J. Contingent management in temporary, dynamic organizations: The comparative analysis of projects. The Journal of High Technology Management Research, v. 12, n. 2, p. 239-271, 2001. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1047-8310(01)00039-6

TRAPPEY, C. et al. A strategic product portfolio management methodology considering R&D resource constraints for engineering-to-order industries. International Journal of Technology Management, v. 48, n. 2, p. 258-276, 2009. http://dx.doi.org/10.1504/IJTM.2009.024919

UTTERBACK, J. M. Mastering the dynamics of innovation. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1994.

VARMA, V. A. et al. A framework for addressing stochastic and combinatorial aspects of scheduling and resource allocation in pharmaceutical R&D pipelines. Computers & Chemical Engineering, v. 32, n. 4-5, p. 1000-1015, 2008. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compchemeng.2007.05.006

VOSS, C.; TSIKRITSIS, N.; FROLICH, M. Case research in operations management. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, v. 22, n. 2, p. 195-219, 2002. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/01443570210414329

WHEELWRIGHT, S. C.; CLARK, K. B. Revolutionizing product development: quantum leaps in speed efficiency and quality. New York: Free Press, 1992.



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